A doppelganger is an apparition or double of a living person. It comes from German, and translates literally from ‘double walker’. In fiction there are four main types of doppelangers:
- A ghostly double of a living person, especially one that haunts such a person.
- An evil twin.
- A remarkably similar double; a lookalike. This kind of doppelganger is also known as a ‘twin stranger’.
- (fantasy) A monster that takes the forms of people, usually after killing them. The changeling is one such monster. Neil Gaiman’s Coraline is of the changeling tradition, as is Outside Over There by Maurice Sendak. Tales about changelings were collected by the Grimm brothers, for instance in ‘About A Woman Whose Child They Had Exchanged’. (Spoilers in the title, much?) This collection of links gives an excellent overview of the changeling mythology from Germany, and offers handy hints on what to do to prevent your newborn being swapped out for an ugly, crying one. (Get yourself a pair of men’s trousers. Masculinity fixes all kinds of woes, y’all.)
Pre-industrial societies used changeling stories as a way of talking about childhood death. These stories were focalised via the viewpoint of the parents of the kidnapped child.
Victorian English changeling stories were romantic fairy stories. The focalising character changed to the kidnapped child themselves or its fairy substitute. These stories weren’t so much about the terror of childhood death but allowed people to explore ideas around the pleasures of childhood and its general strangeness.
In many of these stories the changelings took children who were unloved by their parents, so criticism was lobbed firmly at the parents e.g. “Cold Iron” by Rudyard Kipling and “The Changeling”, a poem by Charlotte Mew.
Victorians were upset that some people believed in the concept of changelings and were enacting violence hoping to kill the changeling and get their ‘real’ children back.
e.g. The real life murder of Bridget Cleary
“Children’s literature is full of representations of children who aren’t ‘real’ children, children who are fakes, counterfeits, frauds of some sort. In our contemporary culture, where the child has such an angelic status in many ways, we invest so much in our children…The counterfeit child he deals with in film and literature is a stand-in, a changeling child, a fake, a fraud, an adopted child or orphan in books and movies – any child a parent did not expect to raise, Bruhm explained. The ‘counterfeit child’ is the notion children are not as innocent as they seem, and they, in fact, know more about the world than adults perceive them to.”Steven Bruhm
I’m sure I’m not the first to float the theory that mythology around changelings is an outworking of post-natal anxiety, nowadays known as post-natal depression/anxiety. There’s a fairly common (and completely unexpected) disconnect between the expectation and reality of new motherhood. Separately, babies are hard work. Throughout history, mothers must have asked, “Did I really give birth to that?”
DOPPELGANGERS IN PICTURE BOOKS
Our picture book app Hilda Bewildered makes use of a doppelgänger, who may or may not exist in the real life of the story. The purpose? To demonstrate the theme: That there is really not that much difference between rich kids and poor kids other than circumstance of birth. Or as I heard Julian Fellowes say in an RNZ interview, in his experience there are genteel, good-looking and smart people to be found at every level of society.
DOPPELGANGERS IN SERIES MIDDLE GRADE
The ghost writer of this Alfred Hitchcock novel from 1978 used the concept of the doppelgänger in a very camp way. Read accordingly.
But we all have doppelgangers, if you expand the concept a little.
WHAT IS A DATA DOPPELGANGER?
If you’ve ever taken more than a brief glance at the ‘personalised’ advertising directed at you by companies such as Facebook, you may identify with the following:
Google thinks I’m interested in parenting, superhero movies, and shooter games. The data broker Acxiom thinks I like driving trucks. My data doppelgänger is made up of my browsing history, my status updates, my GPS locations, my responses to marketing mail, my credit card transactions, and my public records. Still, it constantly gets me wrong, often to hilarious effect. I take some comfort that the system doesn’t know me too well, yet it is unnerving when something is misdirected at me. Why do I take it so personally when personalization gets it wrong?The Atlantic
DOPPELGANGERS IN FILM
See this list: 20 Films About Doubles And Doppelgangers. Can you guess the most famous one?
The double/doppelganger is a subcategory of the trickster archetype. (Click through for a mindmap of tricksters in storytelling.)
The clip below is from the pilot of detective murder mystery series, The Fall. Notice how the bevelled edge of the glass is used to create a parallax effect, rendering the police car and police officer double. The entire thread of The Fall is double — the audience in this particular mystery series is given both stories: That of the detective and that of the murderer, not only that, we are given the murderer’s family life as well as his twisted dark life. Doubles at every turn.
DIFFERENT SPINS ON THE DOPPELGANGER
Freaky Friday is a story which has been adapted numerous times for film. The Freaky Friday body swap is a different take on the doppelganger.