See Saw by Katherine Mansfield

See Saw by Frederick Morgan

“See Saw” is a short story by Katherine Mansfield, published 1919. The movement of a playground see saw shapes the story, balancing age against youth. Like “The Voyage” and “Sun and Moon“, “See Saw” juxtaposes children and adults. This story also juxtaposes flawed humans against the beauty of nature.

STORYWORLD OF “SEE SAW”

TIME

Katherine Mansfield is often called a modernist writer. The modernist movement happened from about 1900 until mid 20th century. One feature of modernist stories: the slightly unusual treatment of time.

Critics have talked about ‘the temporal unconscious’. This refers to how time manifests itself subliminally in literary works. In the antipodes (including New Zealand), it worked slightly differently. The modernist works that came from New Zealand and Australia and surrounds have been called ‘micromodernism’ (by Tim Armstrong). It’s to do with the sense of distance we have, growing up so far away from the imaginative ‘home land’ which, back then, was England.

When writers juxtapose children against elderly people, the effect is often this: We are both young and old at once. Young people are reminded that they too will be old someday. Old people rarely forget that they used to be young, often seeing themselves as permanently young as a way of avoiding thoughts of death. Alice Munro also achieves this effect by juxtaposing youth against age.

NATURE

Across Mansfield’s short stories, nature is depicted as a beautiful and serene phenomenon amid the calamities of human strife. Natural scenes juxtapose against the corruption of human action. Nature is often used to evoke a special atmosphere in order to create an Impressionistic Stimmung (mood). In “See Saw”, the narrator paints an unambiguously beautiful scene, but the characters don’t see it because they are engaged in the petty, annoying details of their lives.

SEASON

Spring.

So the story begins. Mansfield often opened a story with a word, clause or sentence which grounds the reader in time/space. Likewise, “Pictures” opens with ‘Eight o’clock in the morning’. “Daughters of the Late Colonel” opens with ‘The week after was one of the busiest weeks of their lives’. “The Lady’s Maid” opens with ‘Eleven o’clock, a knock at the door’.

Why is spring significant here? Spring means new beginnings, outdoor pursuits, a return to youth (or enjoyment of actual youth). All of these associations can of course be ironically inverted. If spring means youth, autumn means old age. The old people in this story are described as ‘old babies’. In spring, everyone can return to the playfulness of youth.

Grown-up people are often compared with children and children with grown-ups. This reveals contrasting joyful or painful emotions. Sad tones often dominate the scene, sometimes conveying a feeling of claustrophobia, when characters feel as if they are in prison or hospital, or like actors performing on a stare. People appear like actors, wearing masks.

— Julia van Gunsteren, Katherine Mansfield and Literary Impressionism

STORY STRUCTURE OF “SEE SAW”

There is no literal see saw in this story. Mansfield’s titles often changed and didn’t necessarily point to the most important image or character but in this case, the title encourages the reader to wonder about its structural significance. Perhaps Mansfield chose this title hoping to show us that this story structure mimics the basic mechanism of a see saw, reciprocating motion:

  • The children play house while the old people talk about real life concerns
  • They alternate roles (wife and mother / husband and son)
  • And alternate between joy and anger
Edward Atkinson Hornel - The Seesaw 1905
Edward Atkinson Hornel – The Seesaw 1905

A story shaped like a see saw will be a story about juxtaposition, reciprocality and perhaps a change in emotional valence. What is Mansfield juxtaposing here? As mentioned above, she juxtaposes age against youth. But she’s also levelling them out. See saws don’t work if the person at one end is weightier. Despite a constant difference in altitude, the see saw carries to equals. Youth = age.

After Mansfield gives us a wide-angle view of the park in spring, the ‘teeter’ movement of the metaphorical see-saw begins.

  • Narration zooms in on two children.
  • Beneath a tree, two little children, perhaps five or six, have set up a make-believe house. They make a  make-believe pie. For that they need to create a make-believe fire, and they need sticks. Make-believe sticks will suffice.

The ‘totter’ takes over:

  • The scene shifts to the top of the hollow by the tree.
  • Two ‘fat old babies’, probably in their late seventies, plump themselves down on a bench.
  • They talk about a mutual acquaintance who has cut her finger, ‘not badly’.
  • A bird flies over with a ‘great jet of song’.
  • The elderly man stands and waves his hat in the direction of the tree. He doesn’t want bird muck on him.

The see-saw moves again:

  • The children’s make-believe fire is hot.
  • They get into an argument over whether dogs have kittens.

The see-saw moves again:

  • In a single sentence, the old couple get up and waddle away. (Babies also waddle, because of their napkins.)

WEAKNESS/NEED/PROBLEM

Compare “See Saw” To “Prelude“, in which old people also look like babies. In “Prelude” Mansfield inverts various expectations, not only the appearance of age, but men are equally sensitive as women and women behave like men. Linda, a mother, hates being a mother. Beryl says “I’m always acting a part”.

The girl in “See Saw” might easily be a child version of Beryl.

William Henry Knight - In Training for the Derby 1856
William Henry Knight – In Training for the Derby 1856

The elderly people get little joy from life; they are weary. Bird muck bothers the man. Make-believe food will not sustain them. Nevertheless, the old people occupy their spot on the other end of the see-saw that is life.

CHILDREN PLAYING MAKE-BELIEVE

The children aren’t worried about ageing. Yet they have clearly absorbed the language of the adults around them. The girl expresses mild but constant irritation at the boy, for failing to do his jobs properly, for failing to understand he’s playing a make-believe role. Mansfield’s scenes in which children play together often function like this. The children’s make-believe games in “Prelude” map clearly onto the social worlds of the adults. Like the Burnell children, these two are factually unsophisticated but not textually unsophisticated.

Unlike the Burnell children, these are working class kids, with the girl’s non-standard English to show that. She therefore mimics the workaday tasks of a busy, working class woman rather than worrying about how make-believe visitors are to be addressed (see “Prelude”). She asks the boy, “Is that a whole pennorth?” meaning “Is that a whole penny’s worth of sticks?”

DESIRE

The children want to play at making house — especially the girl, who is driving the game. The boy is sort of doing as he’s told.

The elderly people want to enjoy the mild weather of spring after a long winter shut indoors. But are they really enjoying themselves?

OPPONENT

The boy isn’t fully onboard with the girl’s make-believe world. He doesn’t have quite the same ability to retreat into his imagination. He quite literally thinks he needs to find sticks, until the girl points out that even the sticks could be make-believe.

The old people sit companionably but not exactly contentedly.

SETTING AS OPPOSITION

Mansfield’s opening suggested it’s spring and everyone should be enjoying the beautiful weather. Yet the two groups of characters are at odds with each other.  The children are somewhat irritated that they can’t even get an imaginary game to take off. They look at each other ‘in consternation’ when the fire won’t light using nails. Technically, the kids could make the game do anything they want. But their imagination is hampered. The girl is mimicking the consternation of an adult woman, too busy for frivolities. In this way, Mansfield equates youth with old age.

So despite the beautiful utopian park, where the weather is always springlike, this story is therefore an inversion of spring symbolism. The storyworld isn’t helping them to enjoy themselves at all. In some ways the storyworld is an opponent.

Characters are in danger of getting sprayed in bird muck, unable to enjoy the bird’s beautiful song.

The hollow used by the children seems fun as a mimicry of home, but these hollows are also described as ‘caves — caverns’ (note Mansfield’s emphasis via repetition).  Caves can be scary places.

PLAN

The girl sees her original game isn’t working so she changes the dynamics, showing a quite sophisticated ability to read the situation and adjust accordingly.

BATTLE

Each of the two couples has their own minor argument. The children have the argument about whether dogs can have kittens (comical from the reader’s point of view). The elderly couple don’t argue as such, but the shared target of their reprobation is the woman who carelessly (to them) cut her finger at dinner with a knife.

SELF-REVELATION

The tragedy for these characters is that there is no self-revelation.

NEW EQUILIBRIUM

We extrapolate that if this beautiful spring day in this beautiful park can’t bring out the cheer in people then people are naturally grumpy.

Header painting: See Saw by Frederick Morgan

Carnation by Katherine Mansfield

Ambrosius Bosschaert Flower Still Life

Carnation” (1918) is a short story by Katherine Mansfield, included in her Something Childish collection. I like this one very much — a rare story of blossoming female friendship.

STORYWORLD OF “CARNATION”

Mansfield often opens stories in medias res and grounds us in the setting:

On those hot days

The entire story takes place in a French classroom at a girl’s school on a hot summer’s day. In Mansfield’s stories characters are usually unable to comprehend much beyond their own personal world, however beautiful the natural surroundings and its ‘Stimmung’ (mood). The characters in this story are presented to us wholly within the classroom and its immediate surroundings. There’s no sense of anything existing off-stage. Continue reading “Carnation by Katherine Mansfield”

Two Types Of Short Stories

Edmund Blair Leighton - The Ticket

Length aside, short stories are not like other works. There is something just… different about them.

This post is an exploration of the qualitative differences between what we might call The Literary Short Story compared to short narratives enjoyed by a wider audience — we might call it The Genre Short Story, with no hierarchy and no value judgement whatsoever.

Some commentators use the words ‘Plotted’ and ‘Planned’ to describe the difference rather than ‘Lyrical’ and ‘Genre’.

PLOTTED/PLOTTY/PLOT DRIVEN

The sequence of events is crucial in some genres. In mystery, for instance, the writer drops clues. The order of events is crucial in building the mystery and creating suspense.

e.g. Stephen King writes plotted short stories. In horror, the sequence of events is crucial in order to build fear in the reader.

In the plot-driven story, the narrative must have a satisfying conclusion. In these stories, too there is an illuminating moment, an epiphany, but unlike in the image-based story, the epiphany happens due to external happenings rather than inner, psychological conflict within a character.

Michael Chabon, editor of McSweeney’s Mammoth Treasure of Thrilling Tales, calls Stephen King ‘the Last Master of the Plotted Short Story’.

Here’s what King himself says on that same issue:

Plot is, I think, the good writer’s last resort and the dullard’s first choice.

The short stories you find in women’s magazines will be of this kind. They have more in common with the folktale than with the contemporary short story as described below. Readers of plotted short stories will appreciate a tightly plotted narrative, expect suspense techniques in the writing (reveals and reversals) and will appreciate a strong ending, for instance a twist, or at least a big surprise.

These stories also have tall tales and gothic stories (e.g. Dickens and Hardy) as ancestors.

PLANNED/PLOTLESS/IMAGE BASED/LYRICAL

These stories are based on imagery rather than events and paved the way for modernist writers (early 20th century). We could call them Image Based stories. Others call them Lyrical Stories. There is a general plan, but not a plot in the sense that genre fiction requires certain scenes before the story is done. Stories concentrate on the inner mood of characters, and their subjective impressions rather than on external events.

These stories can be very short or very long — this lyrical quality is independent of word count.

Early writers of these stories distrusted plotty stories for a variety of reasons:

  • The classic story shape with its satisfying ending is indeed satisfying… but real life doesn’t work like that. There are many different ‘endings’ to any given event.
  • Plotted stories rely on a too ready-made and facile identification of cause and effect. In fact, they rely on the reader’s cognitive bias to attribute an effect to an earlier presented event. In real life, that’s not how causality works and perhaps we shouldn’t encourage people to revel in such stories.
  • When a story has a ‘strong’ ending, the reader is left with a falsely delineated sense of a finish, when in fact the character will go on with their life. No short story can actually achieve something finished, absolute and wholly understood. There will always be questions. Why not leave the reader with more questions than answers?
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LYRICAL SHORT STORY

Why did these stories come about? We need to look at the historical milieu. Darwin comes in here. When Darwin shared his big idea, he knew the effect it would have on people. This is why he was so nervous about sharing it. Suddenly humans seemed demoted. We didn’t have all the answers after all. Humans now seemed insignificant, no longer the centre of the universe.

How did people cope with this new idea? By retreating inwards and making use of the compensatory powers of imagination.

These short stories are a part of the Impressionist movement. Many are what we might call a ‘psychological sketch’.

FEATURES OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SKETCH
  • The psychological story is about some kind of major change of feeling, or emotional valence. A character starts off happy and ends in a melancholy mood, say. (“Bliss” by Katherine Mansfield.)
  • This change in mood is conveyed via the symbol web and through patterns and images.
  • Themes are not stated directly.
  • The writer fuses narrator and character through a method of narration known as ‘free indirect style’ or ‘free indirect discourse’. This is where there’s a blurred line between what the narrator is telling us and what’s going on inside a character’s head. This style of narration allows for a more direct and colloquial register.

Whichever words we choose, these stories are similar to photographs, capturing a moment. Events are like a montage, and the writer plans rather than plots the most appropriate arrangement. Imagery creates the unity between the different pictures/scenes. Characters tend to have more psychological complexity.

e.g. Katherine Mansfield, Virginia Woolf, William Faulkner.

Freud was influential for these writers, as well as the philosopher Bergson; Freud for his ideas on the subconscious and Bergon for his interest in the flow of time.

 

Header illustration: Edmund Blair Leighton – The Ticket

Something Childish But Very Natural by Katherine Mansfield

interior of old fashioned train

Something Childish But Very Natural” is a short story by Katherine Mansfield, published 1914. The story is named after a poem Harry reads in the book-stall. The poem is by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The poem provides in a nutshell the emotional arc of Mansfield’s story:

Had I but two little wings,
And were a little feathery bird,
To you I’d fly, my dear,
But thoughts like these are idle things,
And I stay here.

But in my sleep to you I fly,
I’m always with you in my sleep,
The world is all one’s own,
But then one wakes and where am I?
All, all alone.

Sleep stays not though a monarch bids,
So I love to wake at break of day,
For though my sleep be gone,
Yet while’ tis dark one shuts one’s lids,
And so, dreams on.

This is a story of youth and reckless abandon. At times Mansfield seems to be making fun of youthful attitudes:

“If only we weren’t so young” [Edna] said miserably. “And yet,” she sighed, “I’m sure I don’t feel very young—I feel twenty at least.”

Mansfield never lived to see middle age. But by the time she wrote this story, she almost certainly did not feel young. She had been through a lot.

CONNECTION TO MANSFIELD’S OWN LIFE

Continue reading “Something Childish But Very Natural by Katherine Mansfield”