Psychological Novel And Children’s Literature

psychological novel

Modern young adult literature bears many similarities to what has previously been called ‘the psychological novel’.

psychological novel is a work of prose-fiction which places more than the usual amount of emphasis on interior characterisation, and on the motives, circumstances, and internal action which springs from, and develops, external action.


The psychological novel is also called “psychological realism”.

A Brief History Of The Psychological Novel

  • Psychological novels co-evolved with psychoanalysis (Freud et al) in the first half of the 1900s.
  • Henry James was one of the first to focus on the motives and psychology of his characters rather than on their actions.
  • Readers take on more work. We don’t just read what happens, we are expected to analyse the characters.
  • English novels were influenced by French and Russian novels. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky were especially influential.
  • Stream of consciousness is one of the distinguishing features of a Psychological Novel.

Dostoevsky was the great analyst — in a sense, almost the inventor — of the psychological category that Nietzsche called ressentiment. Again and again, Dostoevsky shows how pride is really very close to humility, and how hate is very close to a kind of sick love.

James Wood, How Fiction Works

(Ressentiment is the French word for resentment.)

Ways In Which Modern Children’s Literature Resembles The Psychological Novel

1. Abandonment of overt and controlling narrative voices in favour of single and multiple focalisations

In other words, the didactic unseen omniscient voice died.

2. Changes of perspective

The ‘camera’ of the narrator zooms in and out, sometimes right inside the head of a character, oftentimes further away, commenting on an entire scene. Chapters can alternate first person narrators, or switch between first and third. We see characters from both the inside and from the outside. This is known as free indirect style.

3. Montage effects

Montage novels are a type of modernist novel which is ‘cinematic’, but we shouldn’t conclude that cinema was influencing the novel. It’s just as likely the other way around — the word ‘montage’ was not invented for cinema.

In the 1920s and 30s a lot of development was going on in the arts. The word ‘montage’ started to be applied to other kinds of art.

Montage ‘involves juxtaposing two fragments and combining them into a new representation whose sense is equal neither to the sense of each fragment nor to their sum.’ (Ėjzenštejn)

  • contrasting ways of expression (collage)
  • different points of view or hyper-fragmentation of the text (cubist montage)
  • joining elements from heterogeneous cultures, citations, various subtexts or sources
  • ‘contaminations’ of motifs or genres

While montage in the cinema is the basic means of connecting fragments, montage in literature serves to show dissociation. (Unless we’re talking about dialectical montage, a film editing technique that emphasises, rather than hides, the discontinuity between one shot and another.)

Critics have always had trouble defining the montage novel and you could argue the term is basically meaningless now.

However, the modernist novel — which includes the montage novel — is different from the pre-WW 1 era in that it emphasises the irrationality of life and lost faith in traditional values. (Katherine Mansfield was a modernist short story writer.)

4. Internal/interior monologues

We are shown what the characters are thinking. The opposite of this is what we see on a Shakespearian stage, for example, in which the only way we can possibly tell what a character is thinking is via a monologue or a murmur to the side.

5. Stream-of-consciousness and similar techniques

The opposite of stream-of-consciousness is dramatic monologue and soliloquy.


What is psychological suspense?

A Collection Of Literacy Links

No advantage..

1. The meaning of literacy has expanded. Subject Specific Literacy offers a  list of ways in which literacy is taught across all subject areas, from Literacy Gains.

2. Please stop calling yourself a grammar nazi is a thought-provoking read from Daily Life

3. Literacy, Families and Learning: Providing practical, timely and sound support and advice for parents, teachers and teachers in training.

4. Reading Skills Pyramid from Time4Learning

5. Bower, Gordon, and Daniel Morrow. “Mental Models in Narrative Comprehension.” Science: New Series 247 (1990): 44-48. JSTOR. Web. 25 January 2009.

6. Kerr, Matthew, and Sonya Symons. “Computerized Presentation of Text: Effects on Children’s Reading of Informational Material.” Reading and Writing 19 (2006): 1-19. EbscoHost. Web. 31 July 2009.



Stories To Complement *The Artifacts*

The Artifacts is a story about:

  • the power of imagination
  • the value of memory over material objects
  • loss
  • disappointment
  • betrayal

Here are some stories you might like to read/study if you are interested in themes touched upon in The Artifacts.


These next three books are similar to The Artifacts in that they share a counterpoint in genre: The words are realistic while the pictures are fantasy. This creates tension between the “objective” and the “subjective”. (See ‘How Picturebooks Work’, by Maria Nikolajeva and Carole Scott.)


Both stories are about a boy who experiences a rift between himself and his parents, and who then retreats to his own bedroom only to retreat further into his imagination. In both cases, what happens in the boys’ imagination reflects what happens — or what they wish would happen — in their real lives.

For a detailed analysis of the interrelationship between words and pictures in Where The Wild Things Are, see the academic paper by Lawrence R. Sipe: How Picture Books Work: A Semiotically Framed Theory of Text-Picture Relationships (1998). This may be useful for teacher preparation rather than for young student use.

Like Asaf in The Artifacts, Max starts from the security of his bedroom, explores the wider world in his mind, then returns to the safety of his bedroom. See Room With A View: Bedroom Scenes In Picturebooks by William Moebius, Children’s Literature,Volume 19, 1991.


This is another story in which a boy is confined to his bedroom — not because he is in trouble or because he is sulking but because he is ill. I suppose his imagination could be interpreted as delirium, but he may simply be biding his time by using his imagination to amuse himself. His quilt becomes a landscape for instance, and his bed becomes a sea in the ocean. I think most of us have imagined that our bed is floating in an ocean (no?) and the patchwork quilt analogy must be fairly common too. I’m reminded of a Gonsalves painting.



This story is similar to The Artifacts in that a pre-adolescent boy is forced to move house, from a small, cosy house in the suburbs to a large apartment in an urban area. Clancy (who like Asaf appears to be an only child) is not happy about this move, and cannot identify with either of his parents, who think the new abode is marvellous.

Some close reading questions for this picture book might go something like this:

How has the illustrator made Clancy’s old house seem much more cosy than the new one? (Colour, perspective)

On the first page, and again towards the end, the clouds look like three pigs. If we assume that Clancy sees the clouds like this, what does it say about Clancy’s personality? What else in the pictures supports your interpretation of Clancy’s personality?

Where has the illustrator made Clancy’s parents seem united, with Clancy emotionally ‘on his own’?

Talk about the role of cardboard boxes in this story, from their most literal part in the plot to the most metaphorical interpretation you can think of.

What does the fat snail symbolise? (Hiding from the world. Almost agoraphobia. The fat snail also marks a turning point, from realism to magic realism. Now, the illustrations will be a little over the top. For example, the boxes will now tower above in a way that defies real-world gravity.)

Is Millie real? Give evidence for or against. (Her clothes are very similar to Clancy’s — similar in an unlikely way — so she may not be. In fact, she looks like the girl version of Clancy, even down to the two-syllable name. The background of these illustrations is a kind of textured cloud, in which case Millie could have appeared from ‘nowhere’. But Millie does talk to him, and on the final page the stuffed dog has been discarded, suggesting that a real-world friend has displaced an inanimate stand-in. The reader never knows for sure.)

Why does this story rely on allusions to the classic fairy tale The Three Little Pigs? ()In which housing is a part of the plot. Apart from the plot point of moving houses, there exists anxiety in both stories. Perhaps The Three Little Pigs is really about the anxiety of moving house, in which we worry that our new abode will not protect us adequately. The Big Bad Wolf would in that case stand in for all the worries associated with intrusion but also loneliness and other fears. At a more literal level, Clancy builds a stronger and stronger cardboard house, using his imagination to reassure himself that he is living ‘in a house of bricks’ and is thereby fortified and confident in his new environs.)


Short Stories


You’ll find this story in Ray Bradbury Stories Volume 2.

Once time has passed, it has passed. We only have the present. That’s the message I took away from this lovely short story by a master of the form.

Mrs Bentley was a saver. She saved tickets, old theater programs, bits of lace, scarves, rail transfers; all the tags and tokens of existence.

Her collecting tendencies are magnified by the fact that she has lost her husband, John. She wants to save everything that reminds her of him. One summer’s day Helen Bentley sees three ten-year-old children (Jane, Tom and Alice) sitting on her lawn. At that moment the ice-cream van comes past, so she buys them an ice-cream. The children are not very polite, and when Mrs Bentley tells them she’s 72 years old, they hardly believe it. They certainly don’t believe that Mrs Bentley was once a child too. This is too horrific to imagine. Perhaps they’ve never considered before that one day, if they’re lucky, they’ll be old too. The girls leave after a distasteful exchange. Tom follows slowly behind and is the only one of the three children to thank Mrs Bentley for the ice-cream. (I suspect the girls are more terrified of looking like Mrs Bentley because of the shared gender.)

Mrs Bentley can’t get the children out of her mind, so in the evening she stands on her porch for half an hour. When they come past again she invites them inside and shows them some of her special possessions, hoping to prove that she was young once too. Among the trinkets is a photograph of herself when she was a girl, but the two girls still won’t believe that it’s her. They accuse her of falsifying information, of taking off with a picture of another little girl. As the girls leave, they steal a comb, a ring and the photo.

Lying awake in bed, later that night, Mrs Bentley imagines what her husband would have to say about it:

They stole nothing from you, my dear. These things don’t belong to you here, you now. They belonged to her, that other you, so long ago.

She recalls an earlier conversation with him:

Why did you save those ticket stubs and theater progams? They’ll only hurt you later. Throw them away, my dear…It won’t work…No matter how hard you try to be what you once were you can only be what you are here and now. Time hypnotizes. When you’re nine, you think you’ve always been nine years old and will always be. When you’re thirty, it seems you’ve always been balanced there on that bright rim of middle life. And then when you turn seventy, you are always and forever seventy. You’re in the present, you’re trapped in a young now or an old now, but there is no other now to be seen.

The following day the children return, and Mrs Bentley has made up her mind to let them take whatever they like. In return, they help her build a bonfire of items she need no longer keep. Now, whenever they ask her questions, she doesn’t try to persuade them that she was young and pretty once. She insists that she’s always been seventy-two, that she doesn’t have a first name, that she’s just called ‘Mrs Bentley’.


A child tells about his faraway father, a pirate, who comes back home only once a year, in summer, bringing with him the sea water smell. The text gives voice to the child, and the pictures re-create the sunny images taking shape in his mind as his father talks, telling him about hidden treasure maps, the faces of the other pirates who are his companions, the black flag waving on the ship… all this until the sad, grey day when the child and his mother have to travel to another country to his father who is hurt and hospitalised. The child finds out that his father has been in an accident but it didn’t happen to him boarding an enemy ship but just working in a mine. The child finds the reality hard to accept, after the fascinating and loving tales that his father has told him in the past and must now find a way to overcome his disappointment.

The World Through Picture Books


This is a story for younger readers — even preschoolers would appreciate the tale of a fisherman who catches a very rare fish and decides to throw her back into the sea. That night he goes home with no fish, but he does have his memories, which he values more than the physical object. In this respect, the fisherman has learnt the same lesson that Asaf reluctantly learned as a boy.


See this post at Books 4 Learning for some excellent examples, of particular interest for parents and teachers of boys.

What It Looks Like In The Beginning

Creativity is messy, and these are reassuring:

Famous Authors’ Handwritten Outlines for Great Works of Literature.

Meanwhile, I took a look at the original concept sketches I drew for a mock up of Midnight Feast. One thing’s clear: I don’t do pretty mock ups. I’m glad I write the stories myself because I wouldn’t want to have to waste time doing pretty mock ups for approval. The advantage of being writer/illustrator in one is that my concept sketches exist only to remind me of my own original idea.

storyboarding IMG_1488 IMG_1489 IMG_1490 IMG_1491 IMG_1492 IMG_1493


Also, I don’t have the messiest workings. This is pretty ugly: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s Manuscript for “Ozymiandias”

This is cool: Inside The Sketchbooks Of Famous Artists

And funny: The Original Manuscripts, What Books Look Like Before They Are Sent To The Publisher from Laughing Squid