How To Write A Likeable Main Character

George Bernard O'Neill - Stolen Fruit is the Sweetest

Must characters in stories be likeable? No. Are unlikeable characters popular with audiences? Yes. But they’re harder to write. They need to be all of the things listed below and then some.

Some characters in some stories shouldn’t be likeable.

But what if you want to create a genuinely likeable main character who appeals to the broadest base? What if your themes are nothing to do with a reality in which bad people don’t always get what they deserve?

Here are some tips and tricks.

Make use of the trickster archetype

More on tricksters here.

In Children’s Literature, instead of the ‘rogue charmer’ type trickster archetypes per se, we often see child main characters who get into trouble despite their best intentions, and who always maintain a positive attitude against all odds.

  • Anne ShirleyAnne of Green Gables is a completely unrealistic character in that a child who’d been through such hardship would probably be suffering from PTSD and be irredeemably damaged by the time she reached Marilla and Matthew. This aspect is rendered more realistically in the recent re-visioning Anne With An E. Nut the fictional Anne is loveable because she tries her hardest to please, and we know why she does what she does.
  • Ramona Quimby — Likewise, Ramona is always getting into trouble despite her best intentions. Ramona is a granddaughter of Anne Shirley.
  • Amelia Bedelia — overcomes minor misunderstandings while maintaining her dignity and cheerful attitude

Avoid ‘Whiny’

Editor Cheryl Klein urges children’s authors to avoid ‘whiny protagonists without charm or truth’. The worst thing you can do is have a main character sitting around contemplating things. This is why the Flaneur or the Sunday Wanderer archetype is so difficult to write, though you might try a successful post-modern flaneur a la Weetzie Bat.

But for contemporary child audiences it’s a hard sell. Klein sees a lot of scripts start like this when the character is about to move to a new place, so watch out for that especially if you’re writing one of those kinds of stories.

Give Your Character Authority

Klein writes that in children’s stories voices must have ‘authority’ — ‘a sense that the writer knows where he is going and what she is doing; the feeling that the reader is in good hands.’ She says that authority comes from three things:

  • specificity of language
  • not wasting the reader’s time
  • recognisability (identification)

Bravery, confidence and self-motivation are important for child main characters as they are for the ‘con-man’ archetype:

  • Little Bear — illustrated by Maurice Sendak is sweet and plucky, friendly and adventurous
  • Nate Wright (a.k.a. Big Nate) — aspiring cartoonist and prankster, exhibits great confidence and creativity

Make Them Interesting In A Virtuous Way

  • Billy in Where The Red Fern Grows, who really wants a dog and works tirelessly until he’s saved enough to get one
  • Hermione of Harry Potter loves her school work and helps the reader to become interested in magic, too.

Or Make Them Interesting In A Morally Grey Way

Likeable characters may be pessimistic, sardonic, ironic…

  • Katniss Everdeen of The Hunger Games doesn’t have much hope for the future at the beginning of the story but she is soon propelled into action.
  • Bella Swan is a bit of a Debbie Downer, and also a blank Every Girl, but that doesn’t stop her from being interesting. She still has drive (except when she falls into depression — which the reader quickly skips over because the pages are blank except that they have the words for months on them) by seeking out the company of certain boys in a love triangle.
  • The Wimpy Kid has a good, pessimistic handle on his situation in life, and this series is an example of a funny kid with interesting pessimistic energy. This makes him likeable.

I think flawed characters are likeable, because people are flawed. It creates an instant sort of empathy. It’s like when you read Gone With the Wind and Scarlett thinks that the worst thing about the war is how boring it is to hear everyone talk about it. You realize that she’s selfish, and that makes her real.

Katherine Heiny

Show The Readers Your Characters’ Secret Selves

We all have a public, private and secret self. When writers allow readers insight into a character’s secret self readers tend to understand, judge, forgive and then sympathise with the confessor.

This four step progression comes from the work of Dennis Foster who wrote Confession and Complicity in Narrative (1987). Though it applies to fictional characters, it applies in real life as well. This is the astounding power of fiction — when we learn that others have a secret self, and when we learn to empathise with fictional characters via this secret self, we tend to apply these skills to real people.

Give them a moral shortcoming

A likeable character treats others badly. This seems counterintuitive at first.

Julie Lythcott-Haims is talking about writing memoir when she offers the following advice, but it applies to your main fictional characters as well as it applies to your memoir:

You have to be okay with your flawed self, and all of the flawed selves in your story. You also have to be fair to everyone else. As my editor told me when I was writing my memoir, “Be the God of all characters,” by which she meant care about everyone equally. Look at every interaction from all angles. Make sure you’re not portraying yourself in rich complexity and everyone else as stereotype. My editor also meant I had to be realistic about myself. She told me, “Readers won’t trust you or root for you unless they know about some of the stupid, shitty, and shameful things you have done.” It felt like a paradox—how are they going to like me if I give them a reason to hate me? But I came to understand her point. All humans are flawed; a willingness to show your own flaws on the page makes you all the more relatable.

at Jane Friedman’s blog

We identify most strongly with characters we feel sorry for, worry about, or like and admire.

Michael Hauge

Make them heroic.

“The hero doesn’t become a hero simply because he takes a stand against the villain; he becomes a hero because he stands for something. This can be justice, a cause, his family, friends, community, or nation. Invariably, while the villain stands for himself, the hero stands for something beyond himself.”

Howard Suber, The Power of Film

Make them pretty but not too sexually appealing

Howard Suber also says that although stars of films tend to have sex appeal, characters in films who use their sex appeal to get ahead usually end up dead in the end. In children’s stories, the main character is usually unremarkable in looks — the ‘every child’. Before Kristin Stewart came to represent the character of Bella from Twilight, she was described in very generic terms. She was The Every Girl, with defining qualities to speak of. As unpopular as Bella is among certain, more critical, readers, she is also widely loved.

See: The Appeal of Dark, Paranormal Romance.

I’m describing how to make a character widely ‘likeable’ for an inherently conservative audience, not how to tell a woke, inclusive, sex positive story. For a lengthy rumination on this very topic see my post: Female Beauty In Young Adult Literature

Make them smart but not too smart.

forrest gump ice creams

Main characters don’t tend to be super smart. Northrop Frye calls these empathetic main characters low-mimetic heroes. In children’s literature, the self-effacing Greg Heffley is an excellent example, as well as Big Nate and other (mostly boy) characters. Due to well-intentioned but slightly misplaced feminist efforts, girl characters are less often low mimetic heroes who do one dumb thing after another, though we do have Ramona Quimby archetype and granddaughters such as Junie B. Jones, liked for a wide-eyed sort of naivety.

Make their virtues personal achievements rather than privileges.

Education works the same way — a likeable main character doesn’t have to be highly educated. Education isn’t a personal achievement (it’s a luck thing, mostly), so films don’t reward characters simply for being educated.

Suber also points out that whereas people in real life aspire to being rich, in movies characters are punished for this. (Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard). Oskar Schindler is an example of a character who starts off wanting to be rich, but part of his character change is that by the end he’s no longer focused on riches. (He has therefore become a ‘better’ person.)

We know Draco Malfoy is no good as a person because he comes from a background of privilege.
We know Draco Malfoy is no good as a person because he comes from a background of privilege.

Make them self-sacrifice for the greater good.

The hero generally gains little or no reward for their sacrifice — it is the community that gains. To the extent the hero does personally gain from their sacrifice, they cease to be a hero and become simply a smart operator.

Sacrifice becomes sacred when it is truly selfless.

Howard Suber, The Power of Film

Put them in danger and make them experience pain and sorrow.

A lot of popular stories are pyrrhic victories, leaving the hero in a miserable state at the end. (It’s not true that Hollywood films all have happy endings.)

Make them loyal.

Likeable main characters subscribe to the ‘eye-for-an-eye’ policy. As Shakespeare meant it, “If someone takes your eye, you take one of theirs, not both.” (The line is frequently misinterpreted as “If someone takes your eye, you should definitely poke theirs out in retaliation.) Shakespeare was urging moderation in revenge. We don’t seem to mind revenge stories, but we despise characters who take revenge by going way too far.

Cater to Audience Prejudices.

Suber is upfront about the fact that Hollywood writers and producers cater very much to a conservative, particular kind of audience. It helps if your hero is young. And their values need to concord with those of the majority of the audience.

Many of us are ageists when it comes to heroes — we often think of heroes as people who are beyond childhood but not yet into middle age.

Howard Suber, The Power of Film

There is troubling and enduring audience prejudice when it comes to children’s book heroes: The white, middle-class boy as the ‘universal child’. The myth of the universal child must be based on the idea that there is an archetype with which young readers of all backgrounds can relate. We therefore have books disproportionately full of such types.

This is related to the idea that only white boys can be funny, and a lot of the most popular children’s literature is funny: Children of colour can star in tragic stories. Girls can’t be silly.

This state of affairs is changing, but slowly.

Make them a good mediator.

The hero is almost always an intermediary, someone who mediates between different social groups, between man and nature, man and God, or some other constellation of forces. […] Villains, by contrast, are usually well-integrated into their communities, and are often members of its power structure. They belong: heroes don’t. […] To be an intermediary is to always be lonely, because you never truly belong. One of the recurrent paradoxes of heroes is that they so often successfully mediate between contending cultures or value systems, but they often cannot mediate between contending forces within themselves.

Howard Suber, The Power of Film

Make them empathetic, not sympathetic.

Sympathetic means likeable. … We’d want them as friends, family members, or lovers. They have an innate likeability and evoke sympathy. Empathy, however, is a more profound response.

Empathetic means “like me”. Deep within the protagonist the audience recognizes a certain shared humanity. Character and audience are not alike in every fashion, of course; they may share only a single quality. But there’s something about the character that strikes a chord. In that moment of recognition, the audience suddenly and instinctively wants the protagonist to achieve whatever it is that he desires.

The unconscious logic of the audience runs like this: This character is like me. Therefore, I want him to have whatever it is he wants, because if I were he in those circumstances, I’d want the same thing for myself.” Hollywood has many synonymic expressions for this connection: “somebody to get behind,” “someone to root for,” All describe the empathetic connection that the audience strikes between itself and the protagonist. And audience may, if so moved, empathize with every character in your film, but it must empathize with your protagonist. If not, the audience/story bond is broken.

Robert McKee, Story

Okay, make them empathetic, but not too empathetic!

It’s counter intuitive, but audiences prefer that characters show a human failing. That’s why the Mary-Sue archetype no longer works. The Mary Sue probably never really worked for audiences, but was written in didactic stories for children under the belief that children required good modelling in their fictional characters.

Modern thinking is more like this: Children need to see that others have the same emotions and ‘bad feelings’ as they do in order to know that they are not alone in the world. The same applies to adults, actually.

Give them self control rather than power over others.

Self-control isn’t much talked about in comparison to other virtues but we value it highly in ourselves and in others. This is a relative modern phenomenon. We admire those who exert excellent control over themselves.

On the other hand, we revile those who try to exert control over others. We resist those people in real life, and the same is true in fiction.

Michel Foucault’s main legacy is his thoughts about power. He unpicked notions of progress and enlightenment in order to analyse their dark sides. But what he had to say about human sexuality is also interesting and relates to how we have historically considered self-control a virtue.

Foucault believed that sexuality only started to be policed in the 19th century, which (ironically) led to an explosion in people talking about sex, Havelock Ellis et al. Foucault was very interested in how we categorised things. He noticed that people started to be divided into taxonomies according to their sexuality: sadists, masochists, hysterical females, sexually promiscuous females and so on. These categories started to be medicalised. People started to think that by looking at your sexuality you would understand something deeper about yourself. Foucault critiqued that idea. He then studied old texts from antiquity to understand how people thought of sexuality in the past. He discovered that until Havelock Ellis et al came along, people were categorised not according to their sexual orientation, and not according to the type of sex they had, but along a simple binary: Could they control their urges? In the past, someone who could control their sexual urges was considered admirable, like someone who can control their finances — evidence of a person who’s got it all together. Who you slept with, their gender, your fantasies, none of that came into it.

It’s interesting to consider the extent to which we admire those with self-control today, versus how we (via our governments) punish people who do not exhibit self-control, be it over substance use, sex, or personal finances.

In fact, it’s difficult to think of an anti-hero who does not have self-control. This anti-hero may be morally wrong, but on some level we can still admire their great self-control when it comes to exacting revenge and evildoings.


How to edit your movie to create empathy

Header painting: George Bernard O’Neill — Stolen Fruit is the Sweetest

How To Write Like Alice Munro


Of course, no one but Alice Munro can write like Alice Munro. That is my disclaimer on each of my sporadic series of ‘How To Write Like…’ posts.


Munro’s stories have grown more complex as she has grown older. Later stories are sometimes a more complex take on an earlier one.

Munro’s stories don’t cohere in the same way as chapters in a novel but together they form a unified work of art. Short stories may do a better job of highlighting certain aspects of her work than novels would have.

Something from page three will come and hit you on page thirty, but you had not registered the matter when you first read page three.

New Yorker fiction editor Deborah Treisman

  • Munro reveals essential truths about ourselves in an unsentimental, yet deeply humane way.
  • Missed opportunities and lies are two themes that Munro approaches from many angles.
  • Consider Munro’s beginnings and endings as of a piece — the beginning will foreordain the ending.
  • Munro enjoys experimenting with the gothic.
  • Munro has said she sees stories architecturally, as a house whose various rooms one can roam in and out of, forgoing any prescribed order.
  • Munro has said that she admires writers of the American South, such as Eudora Welty and Carson McCullers.
  • Munro writes with black humour.
  • Julian Barnes states that Munro’s short stories ‘have the density and reach of other people’s novels’.
  • Some of her stories are unusually longer than typical short stories.
  • Munro stories show an interest in love and the often hidden intricacies of marriage.
  • A theme is often love, or perhaps romantic notions masquerading as love.
  • The complications and cruelties of age and time are other themes that Munro re-visits.

She reminds us that love and marriage never become unimportant as stories—that they remain the very shapers of life, rightly or wrongly. She does not overtly judge—especially human cruelty—but allows human encounters to speak for themselves. She honors mysteriousness and is a neutral beholder before the unpredictable. Her genius is in the strange detail that resurfaces, but it is also in the largeness of vision being brought to bear (and press on) a smaller genre or form that has few such wide-seeing practitioners. She is a short-story writer who is looking over and past every ostensible boundary, and has thus reshaped an idea of narrative brevity and reimagined what a story can do.

Lorrie Moore, The New Yorker

There is plenty of multivalent detail throughout Munro’s fiction, meaning a particular detail can be read at a literal as well as symbolic level. This is perhaps why Munro’s details seem, at first glance, ‘strange’.

Even when you are surprised by a shift in a character’s thoughts, it seems completely organic. We all make those kinds of transitions in our thinking processes, even though they don’t point to an end the way a story does.

An Appreciation Of Alice Munro


The ‘real worlds’ of Munro’s stories have settings dotted around Canada, focusing on Southwestern Ontario, where Munro has spent the majority of her life. During her first married she lived in West Vancouver and Victoria, so she knows the other side of Canada as well.

Munro’s sense of irony is invariably directed at herself more than at her characters. She has always regarded herself as an anachronism: an old-style writer, writing about a rural world she once knew, which has been transformed. Except that, although society has changed, human nature hasn’t, and this is why Munro’s understanding of life is so compelling.

Irish Times

The landscape of a Munro short story has been described as a consanguinity between the fictional and the real. (Meaning they both come from a common ancestor.)

The setting of the real is portrayed as affectively meaningless to us. (The fictional is as important, on a psychological level, as the imagined, or the hoped for.)

There’s been a lot of critical interest around the realism of her work, with some people making reference to magical realism.

Munro often creates a world that has all the illusion of external reality, but she pulls the reader deeper and deeper into what becomes a hallucinatory inner world which may include mystery, secrecy, and deception.

In many of Munro’s stories the willing of a destiny is overtaken by a fatality that is unnervingly spectacular. Characters are driven by something they cannot resist because they are certain they are a part of it. Munro explores fatality in many different ways across many of her stories.


A common Munro device is to begin in the now and hurtle back to the then.

Much has been said about how Alice Munro can write a novel in the space of a short story.

Alice Munro can move characters through time in a way that no other writer can. You are not aware that time is passing, only that it has passed—in this, the reader resembles the characters, who also find that time has passed and that their lives have been changed, without their quite understanding how, when, and why. This rare ability partly explains why her short stories have the density and reach of other people’s novels. I have sometimes tried to work out how she does it but never succeeded, and I am happy in this failure, because no one else can—or should be allowed to—write like the great Alice Munro.

Julian Barnes, The New Yorker


Most of Munro’s main characters are women, but not all of them. “Face” (2008) is from the point of view of a young boy.

  • Munro has the ability to recreate the mundanities of ordinary lives, but also to gently peel away the layers and reveal the raw emotions submerged beneath.
  • There is great poignancy in Munro’s description of individuals who don’t fit in and obvious pleasure in her revelations of their small triumphs.

Claire Thurlow

  • Alice Munro writes many stories about women in mid-life, caught between memory and reality. Throughout the narrative they reassess and reflect.
  • But occasionally she writes a child character, e.g. “Trespasses”, in which Lauren is a ten-year-old girl.
  • For Munro’s characters, to imagine something is to understand it.
  • Munro’s work is interested in men with menacing water, especially hoses. (Is this sexual?)
  • Munro’s women are perceptive guessers, quiet visionaries, fortuitous survivors.


Families are usually complicated in Alice Munro stories. Families aren’t nuclear; marriages aren’t lifelong/faithful. In later stories, the wider network is populated with LGBT characters. This is, of course, like life.

Alice Munro’s mothers have been likened to clowns: Mothers and Other Clowns: The Stories of Alice Munro by Magdalene Redekop (a feminist work).

Is Alice Munro feminist?

Like Chekhov, Alice Munro never sets out to make a political point. She isn’t sexist, she has no axe to grind. She’s simply bearing witness to the human experience, reporting from the front lines. Yet she is making a political point, one that’s radical because it’s so enormous and so unsettling. The point is that girls and women, even those who lead narrow and constricted lives, those who wield no influence, who have a limited experience in the world, are just as significant and important as boys and men, those who take drugs, ride across the border, drift down the river, or hunt whales. Women’s lives, too, are driven by the great forces that drive all important experience. As it turns out, all those forces are internal: rage, love, jealousy, spite, grief. These are the things that make our lives so wild and dramatic, whether the backdrops are harpoons or swing sets. The great experiences can be set anywhere: a dentist’s office, a neighbor’s living room, a country road at night. It’s those propulsive, breathtaking, suffocating forces inside us that make those moments so vivid and shocking, it’s what’s inside us that cracks the landscape open, shocking and illuminating like a streak of lightning. She showed us that, Alice Munro.

Roxana Robinson


Characters are lacking in sentimentality. Alice Munro has said in an interview regarding the death of her own daughter, soon after giving birth, that she went home and barely talked about it with her first husband because they were not a sentimental couple. This reminds me of my grandparents, who were probably the same after their own stillbirth experience in the late 1950s.


It is reality that awakens possibilities, and nothing would be more perverse than to deny it.

Robert Musil, The Man without Qualities

There are tales featuring out-and-out fantasists, like the short story “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” and the film My Summer of Love, but Alice Munro’s characters are not fantasists. Instead, they are firmly reality based on the Continuum Of Imaginative Powers. Characters use imagination to explore alternate realities, to cope with grief and other uncomfortable emotions.

The difficulty of authentic and complete reconstructions of events in Munro’s fiction is not, on the whole, a problem of history, and much less of an exuberant postmodern sensibility, but of a general conviction that life is comprised of “disconnected realities. […]

Though Munro’s characters are grounded in reality, characters have fallible memories. When Munro takes the reader along on remembrances of the past, at no point are we encouraged to believe every single word. (Wrong) memory can influence someone’s present as much as the past reality.

‘Who Was It If It Wasn’t Me?’: The Problem of Orientation in Alice Munro’s ‘Trespasses’: A Cognitive Ecological Analysis

Memory, however, is fallible. It is incomplete. Munro does an excellent job of recreating how memory really works. Perhaps only older readers will appreciate this particular aspect of her stories; instead of remembering the ‘plots’ of past events, even big events, we tend to be left with resonant imagery. We forget people’s names, even if they were important to us. Minor characters become larger in hindsight. Significant characters can seem almost fictional in hindsight.

In creating  a sense of imperfect memory, Alice Munro makes much use of a technique I’ve seen described as ‘side shadowing‘. It’s especially useful to the short story writer because the story seems so much more expansive. Side-shadowing is used in various ways, and Munro has numerous reasons for using it.

Here’s how Ulrica Skagert puts it:

The phenomenon of possibility permeates Munro’s stories. An investigation of this phenomenon shows a curious paradox between possibility and necessity.

It’s not just fallible human memory which toys with the ‘reality’ presented to readers. Characters tend to have the following psychological and moral shortcomings:

Munro’s fiction most often suggests that a determinate set of events lies behind the text, but that the conflicting self-justifications of her characters undermine narrative certainty. Familiar motives and shortcomings—the everyday dishonesty fostered by self-interest; the inclination to suppress what is ugly and disturbing; and the failure to exhibit a systematic sense of responsibility in our dealings with others—animate the accounts of Munro’s characters.

‘Who Was It If It Wasn’t Me?’: The Problem of Orientation in Alice Munro’s ‘Trespasses’: A Cognitive Ecological Analysis


The Anagnorisis at the end of Munro’s stories tends to feature an event which offers a moment of release and an ‘epistemic certainty to the characters’ (Ulrica Skagert). Epistemic means ‘relating to knowledge’. Skagert argues that via this release and certainty the characters obtain a radical, audacious sense of freedom and intensity of life. So, more of an ‘epiphany’ than uninflected ‘anagnorisis’. Characters tend to move from entrapment to freedom.

Great stories are created by a nuanced sentence, a sudden realisation, a life-changing wrong choice; they are made in the description of a knowing glance, the angle of a character’s shoulders as they walk away, in the slow anger that destroys a love and shapes memory. Character, not plot, drives her art, which explores life as lived.

Irish Times

And here’s the difference between a good short story and an excellent one: In a great story, the reader also experiences a Anagnorisis. However, this is not spelled out for us. The reader must generally work for it. How does Munro lead us to our Anagnorisiss? Well, the trickery starts at the beginning:

As Munro brings conflicting interests and accounts to the fore, the desideratum of [desire for] factual accuracy loses authority as the reader focuses on ethical concerns and shapes a value- rather than event-based narrative account from the discrepancies. Not surprisingly, then, Munro’s preoccupation with accurate accounts is not merely thematic, but informs the structure of many of her stories, whose meandering beginnings challenge the reader’s basic efforts at orientation.

‘Who Was It If It Wasn’t Me?’: The Problem of Orientation in Alice Munro’s ‘Trespasses’: A Cognitive Ecological Analysis


Munro includes details which prevent her stories from slipping into melodrama. The Irish Times describes her as a ‘coolly astute observer of the ordinary’. Alice Munro writes the opposite of melodrama. Instead, terrible and life-changing events happen alongside the mundane events, mostly. Instead, terrible and life-changing events happen alongside the mundane events, mostly. For instance, a husband dies suddenly while at the hardware store (in “Free Radicals”). Instead of the wife at home, wondering what’s happened to him, “She hadn’t had time to wonder about his being late.”


Characters are often: teachers (especially music teachers), university lecturers (philandering), carpenters and doctors (often scoundrels, despite their social standing), pharmacists — not many people have really obscure sounding jobs, but maybe no one did last century?

Piano teachers, divorced professors, country doctors, solitary widows in the country—all those small and insignificant people lead lives of enormous drama. Women lead lives of enormous drama. She has made that into fact.

Roxana Robinson, The New Yorker


The women are shown performing emotional labour in a way you don’t tend to find in stories written by men, even when men are creating female characters. Most men simply don’t seem to get the extent to which women are acculturated in this area. The opening paragraph of “Free Radicals” is a perfect example of this:

At first, people kept phoning, to make sure that Nita was not too depressed, not too lonely, not eating too little or drinking too much. (She had been such a diligent wine drinker that many forgot that she was now forbidden to drink at all.) She held them off, without sounding nobly grief-stricken or unnaturally cheerful or absent-minded or confused. She said that she didn’t need groceries; she was working through what she had on hand. She had enough of her prescription pills and enough stamps for her thank-you notes.


If there’s drug use in her stories, it’ll be alcohol. When asked if she took drugs during the hippie era, Alice Munro replied maybe a little marijuana, but alcohol is the drug of her generation.


Munro has also talked about how women of her generation never developed their own personal desires until the hippie era hit them, and then it hit them with a force. Even at the age of 30, Alice Munro felt 18 again. Likewise, the younger versions of the women in her stories often seem quite passive. By the time these women are old ladies they’ve perhaps become a little more self-actuated, but young women are often propelled along by others, mostly men, who really did run that world. Women of Munro’s generation were expected to get married and have children. Any other kind of desire was considered unfeminine. Munro herself had exactly those desires. (Munro published her first book age 37, before her awakening. If she’d published earlier, we would’ve seen quite different work.)


The cast of characters will most likely contain both young and old, and that’s aside from the narrator’s young and old self. For instance, a young woman will meet an old woman. This reminds her of her own mortality, perhaps, or the older lady from the past connects the main character’s older and younger self in a way that may not have been evident to the character herself. We are constantly reminded as readers that our age is not our identity; at some point we are young and, if we are lucky, at some point we are old.


In this post I explain the difference between folk psychology and studied psychology: People do not have much in the way of enduring character — how we behave in any given situation depends largely on the situation.

A difference between genre fiction and good literary fiction — in literary fiction characters behave according to their circumstance, as people in real life would. Below, a reader explains this in a review of  Munro’s collection, The Love Of A Good Woman:

Loving Munro is … easy because her ethics of care and compassion for others [is] embodied by these stories, for example by Enid, the protagonist of [“The Love Of A Good Woman”]. Yet Munro refuses to paint an icon for worship: Enid can live as she does only because of her enabling circumstances, she experiences poisoned fantasies, and her goodwill is not unconditional. The same is true for other characters: each person in the book is carefully drawn as an individual shaped by histories, enmeshed in social structures that influence, constrain, oppress, enable, direct, oppose and support them in interconnected ways. They are at least partly responsible for their fortunes and failings, but Munro never victim-blames or hero-worships.

from a Goodreads reviewer


Here’s the problem with thumbnail character descriptions and why I shy away from writing them myself: By simply describing someone, we are actively encouraging the reader to fall back on stereotypes. Without existing prejudice, character sketches can’t do their job and are useless. Why does a writer give us a character’s BMI? Is it simply to paint a picture in our mind? Or are we meant to map society’s view onto characters?

Yet if writers avoid describing characters altogether, readers may fail to paint a picture. Moreover, they’ll come up with their own picture. I once wrote a short story, put it through critique. Halfway through the story I mentioned the main character’s beard. A critique partner said that I’d ‘sprung the beard’ on them. I found the imagery of that funny, but the reason they felt that way? I hadn’t started with any thumbnail sketch.

How to write character sketches without the inevitable downsides?

Well, Munro doesn’t shy away from telling us someone’s BMI and we can easily deduce where they would fall on the beauty spectrum. (Should we avoid talking about fatness and thinness at all? That’s a whole different issue with arguments both ways.)

Such information is offset by the fact that many of Munro’s character descriptions include a line about how the person we see is not the real person at all.

Mr. Travers never told stories and had little to say at dinner, but if he came upon you looking, for instance, at the fieldstone fireplace he might say, “Are you interested in rocks?” and tell you how he had searched and searched for that particular pink granite, because Mrs. Travers had once exclaimed over a rock like that, glimpsed in a road cut. Or he might show you the not really unusual features that he personally had added to the house—the corner cupboard shelves swinging outward in the kitchen, the storage space under the window seats. He was a tall, stooped man with a soft voice and thin hair slicked over his scalp. He wore bathing shoes when he went into the water and, though he did not look fat in his clothes, a pancake fold of white flesh slopped over the top of his bathing trunks.

Alice Munro, “Passion

  1. Mr Travers’ manner of speaking
  2. His special interests
  3. Physical description
  4. Voice description
  5. How he is different underneath (under his clothes)

Grace was wearing a dark-blue ballerina skirt, a white blouse, through whose eyelet frills the upper curve of her breasts was visible, and a wide rose-colored elasticized belt. There was a discrepancy, no doubt, between the way she presented herself and the way she wanted to be judged. But nothing about her was dainty or pert or polished, in the style of the time. A bit ragged around the edges, in fact. Giving herself Gypsy airs, with the very cheapest silver-painted bangles, and the long, wild-looking, curly dark hair that she had to put into a snood when she waited on tables.

Alice Munro, “Passion

  1. Grace’s clothing
  2. Her sexualisation of herself
  3. How she is different underneath (she doesn’t feel as sexual as she dresses)
  4. A description of her ‘falseness’, as viewed from a character’s POV rather than an objective narrator’s. (In the wider context, this would be how same-age men tend to see her.)
  5. A detail of her clothing (the snood) which marks the earlier era

Mrs. Travers, however, was barely five feet tall, and under her bright muumuus seemed not fat but sturdily plump, like a child who hasn’t stretched up yet. And the shine, the intentness, of her eyes, the gaiety that was always ready to break out in them, had not been inherited. Nor had the rough red, almost a rash, on her cheeks, which was probably a result of going out in any weather without thinking about her complexion, and which, like her figure, like her muumuus, showed her independence.

Alice Munro, “Passion

There was a change in his voice—a crack in it, a rising pitch that made her think of a television comedian doing a rural whine. Under the kitchen skylight, she saw that he wasn’t as young as she’d thought. When she’d opened the door, she had been aware only of a skinny body, the face dark against the morning glare. The body, as she saw it now, was certainly skinny but more wasted than boyish, affecting a genial slouch. His face was long and rubbery, with prominent light-blue eyes. A jokey look, but a persistence, too, as if he generally got his way.

Alice Munro, “Free Radicals

  1. Height
  2. BMI
  3. Usual clothing
  4. Comparison to a child
  5. Her eyes, as windows into her soul
  6. The way in which her appearance has been affected by her actions

She was a slim, suntanned woman in a purple dress, with a matching wide purple band holding back her dark hair. Handsome, but with little pouches of boredom or disapproval hiding the corners of her mouth. She left most of her dinner untouched on her plate, explaining that she had an allergy to curry.

Alice Munro, “Passion

  1. BMI
  2. Skin tone
  3. Clothing
  4. How her handsomeness does not match her attitude
  5. Her allergy to curry, which the reader is encouraged not to take seriously

His hands didn’t feel drunk, and his eyes didn’t look it. Nor did he look like the jolly uncle he had impersonated when he talked to the children, or the purveyor of reassuring patter he had chosen to be with Grace. He had a high pale forehead, a crest of tight curly gray-black hair, bright gray but slightly sunken eyes, high cheekbones, and rather hollowed cheeks. If his face relaxed, he would look sombre and hungry.

Alice Munro, “Passion

  1. How he is now different from how he presented at first
  2. His duplicitous way of talking, which is simply a matter of changing register — we all do it, but here we are encouraged to suspect him of something sinister
  3. The dimensions of his face
  4. The colour of his hair (indicating middle age)
  5. How the main character imagines his face might look different. She’s really observing him closely.

She is a lean eager-looking woman with a mop of pewter colored hair and a slight stoop which may come from coddling her large instrument, or simply from the habit of being an obliging listener and a ready talker.

Alice Munro, “Fiction

  • BMI
  • hair style and colour
  • pose
  • two lifestyle possibilities about why she may have adopted that pose, together telling us all we need to know about this character


Munro writes third person narratives, usually focusing on a woman, moving in and out of her head from close third person to omniscient.


Time often spans a lifetime, from the point of view of a woman near the end of her life. She looks back on long-ago events as an extradiegetic character. Her younger self seems like a different person to her. After a lifetime of reflection, she is often more forgiving of her younger trespasses, understands why things happened the way they did. The younger woman is often without any particular desire of her own in the story, propelled along by men and expectations.

In these narratives which can span a lifetime, Munro moves seamlessly from the present to the recent past to the long distant past. This requires knowing when to make use of three verb tenses in the English language:

  • Simple past tense: At first, people kept phoning, to make sure that Nita was not too depressed
  • Past perfect tense: Rich had told her that he was going to the village, to the hardware store.
  • Present tense: Rich died in June. Now here it is midsummer.

The reader doesn’t notice she’s even doing this. She does it so well. Native English speakers create these tenses naturally, yet when writing a story you do have to make a decision when to use which tense, at least at some point, perhaps as part of the revision process.

At first we might think, okay, the distant past would obviously be simple past. The recent past would obviously be the past perfect. And the switch from iterative to the singulative would obviously cue a switch to the present. But look closer; it’s a bit more tricky than that.

I find it helpful to think of Munro writing a series of vignettes, each with their own entire timeline filling out the space. So, a flashback might start with the simple past, then within that same flashback it’ll switch to past perfect, so the reader feels we’re not reading a flashback at all. This is important because a constant stream of flashbacks can otherwise frustrate the reader, who is naturally more interested in the present. (Reading a flashback can feel like reading something enclosed in parentheses — we tend to skip through it, keen to get back to the ‘real’ text. See what I’m doing here?)

There’s another important reason why Munro encourages us to feel the past is inextricably tied to the present. In an Alice Munro story, the present never exists in isolation. Every life event is connected to what came before — the end of life often mirrors the beginning of life — and memories of the past absolutely influence a character’s experience of the here and now, influencing decisions which might, to outsiders, seem wacky or illogical.  Once we know the backstory that is affecting her, the reader understands why she behaves the way she does.

Stories unfold as if someone is speaking to us. If you’ve ever studied speech-making, you’ll know that an audience far prefers naturalistic speaking over a memorised script. Although you might falter, you might start a sentence then switch it for another, you add fillers… This is in fact easier for people to understand than a perfect stream of words. This is why conversations with friends are easier to follow than a literary audiobook. Munro absolutely has a sense of how humans grasp story, and she tells her stories as an oral storyteller might.

What is she actually doing, though? What does this mean and how do we replicate the technique?

We might say she’s making use of reveals and reversals. Going back to “Free Radicals”, the story opens with a woman in mourning. The reader naturally wonders: Why is she in mourning? Okay, we soon learn she’s lost her husband. The reader naturally wonders: How did he die? (I think we always wonder this, even if we have the courtesy not to ask, which we should not.) Munro then tells us how the husband dies.

Note that Munro could have completely inverted this in her storytelling. She could open with a man dying outside a hardware store. But she doesn’t, because she knows how reveals work. This is a term used by screenwriters, but it applies to everyday storytelling, as well, in a smaller way.

In the same story, we are told that Nita has buried her husband in a cardboard box. The reader wonders if the relationship was terrible. We are told that in fact they planned this together in advance. Reversal: Okay, so she didn’t bury him in a box because he was terrible. They are simply unsentimental. Further reveal: Nita had expected to die first because she has a cancer diagnosis. If she’s mad at her dead husband, it’s for ‘stealing her thunder’. See the minor reveals and reversals in there? It’s masterful. We think we know this character — we’re doing our best to understand her motivations. But small, unexpected pieces of information have us constantly on our toes, reevaluating our understanding of this character.

Alice Munro makes regular use of the writing technique of describing what is not as a way in to what is. The following is a description of recent bereavement:

She thought carefully, every morning when she first took her seat, of the places where Rich was not. He was not in the smaller bathroom, where his shaving things still were, along with the prescription pills for various troublesome but not serious ailments which he’d refused to throw out. Nor was he in the bedroom, which she had just tidied and left. Not in the larger bathroom, which he had entered only to take tub baths. Or in the kitchen, which had become mostly his domain in the last year. He was of course not out on the half-scraped deck, ready to peer jokingly in the window—through which she might, in earlier days, have pretended to be alarmed at the sight of a peeping tom.

“Free Radicals”

Ganette would describe this as the Pause on the continuum of narrative pacing. It slows the narrative down to a standstill, working like a freeze frame in a film. Think also of pillow shots, as Japanese film directors call them.


Look for:

  • lightness — When we see women depicted in gloomy circumstances caused by patriarchal systems of repression, there is still a recurring moment of a peculiar feeling of lightness or newness that does not fit directly or simply into the condition of their social realities.
  • newness
  • sameness — Alice Munro’s fiction recognizes life as possibility in a moment when it shows itself in its own remarkable sameness.
  • absence — a focus not what is there but what is absent or delayed
  • possibility and fatality — Munro is fascinated by the surface reality of how things are.
  • liberation vs restraint
  • contingency and fatality


photo by Louis Moncouyoux

There are many trains — characters inside trains, train tracks going past a house, incidents on train tracks. This makes sense, as trains are a wonderful metaphor for the inevitable passing of time. Once you’re on a train there’s no stopping it — you’ll end up where you end up, and life often seems like this in hindsight.

Munro writes ‘character’ descriptions of houses, which depicts houses as characters in their own right, inextricably linked to their inhabitants. Houses remain even after the inhabitants have long since gone. A visit to a former house brings back many memories.

Like Annie Proulx, Alice Munro’s narratives are often about outsiders coming in to invade small towns. With Munro, an older character returns to former haunts to learn that everything has regrettably changed. Highways have been built, young people have moved in, often with their tacky play sets in the yards. There is regret on the part of the characters — why couldn’t things just stay the same? On the other hand, they don’t wish for that at all. Rather, their memories are rose-tinted. In a Munro story, reality and memory do not line up.

The house had a row of cedars on one side and a railway embankment on the other. The railway traffic had never amounted to much, and by now there were only a couple of trains a month. Weeds were lavish between the tracks. One time, when she was on the verge of menopause, Nita had teased Rich into making love up there—not on the ties, of course, but on the narrow grass verge beside them—and they had climbed down inordinately pleased with themselves.

“Free Radicals”

Later, in the same story, the train tracks give the impression that once a terrible situation is set in motion, there’s no getting out of it. An intruder has tricked his way into her house. Not, Nita must wait for fate to play out: Train tracks as fate.

“I was only going to get the keys.”
“You wait till I say. I walked the railway track. Never seen a train. I walked all the way to here and never seen a train.”
“There’s hardly ever a train.”

An affinity between the inevitable and the possible is central to Munro’s writing.

As shown in ‘Train’, Munro expertly analyses those sudden, irreparable choices in life that lead us away from our original track. The metaphor of train is repeated in ‘To Reach Japan’, where Greta’s sudden impetuous sexual liaison with another traveller leads to the disappearance of her young daughter. She is travelling to Toronto to house-sit for a friend and is due to return to the comfortable tedium of her marriage. Yet, another impulsive gesture – the sending of a letter to a man she barely knows – may take Greta away from the familiar tracks of her life.

Claire Thurlow


In many stories, a character has gone missing. Perhaps they’ve dropped off the face of the planet, or another character thinks they have (e.g. “Jakarta“). A child grows up and cuts their parents off. Another form of absence is when two or more characters knew each other when young, fall mostly out of contact for decades, then reconnect when they’re old.


Munro uses the full range of narrative pace in her stories. The pacing itself maps onto the emotions she evokes in the reader. She can skip over decades, then slow the pace down to a pause (freeze frame). She is an expert at summary. Here she summarises a long journey home:

Sally gets lost, then finds her way. The bank building again, the same or possibly a whole new regiment of loiterers. The subway ride, the car park, the keys, the highway, the traffic. Then the lesser highway, the early sunset, no snow yet, the bare trees, and the darkening fields.

Deep Holes

Alice Munro On Short Stories

The Canberra Times: Panorama, 2 January 2010

Secrets and Scams in Storytelling

Skippy advertisement by Norman Rockwell

When telling a story, the following is non-negotiable: Your character must have some kind of plan. There really are no exceptions to this rule.

There are some caveats, such as when your main character is a passive sort of character, in which case another character will make the plan which kicks them out of passivity. (Often it’s the opponent.)

But a story with no plan is not a story.

In her Watching email, NYT writer Margaret Lyons shares her passion for the scam:

a chance to watch both Fyre Festival docs last week — both flawed; both interesting — and I was also delighted to see that ABC News has a new podcast about Elizabeth Holmes and Theranos. And now, perhaps the best of all scams: A literary scam. This New Yorker piece about the novelist Dan Mallory’s “trail of deceptions” is going to power my whole week. My passion for scams and hoaxes continues unabated, and I’m not alone. I finally had If you would like to sing “oh my scammy, whammy mammy,” now is the time to rewatch “Mr. Show.”

Here’s why we don’t need to ‘like’ characters in the stories we enjoy: We wouldn’t want to be friends with a scammer (or trickster, or someone who wears a mask) but we really enjoy seeing their antics in fiction. Perhaps this is partly wish-fulfilment. We like revenge stories, and we like to watch fictional characters exacting revenge.


In children’s literature, baddies who plot evil are often foiled by a child or a childlike creature who saves the day. As in films for adults, some of these plots are serious and some are comical.

Almost every children’s story involves a scam scene, regardless of what we call it:

  • The entire Famous Five and Secret Seven series, and all of the child sleuth grandchild books, in which groups of children outwit smalltime crooks.
  • Matilda — Roald Dahl absolutely loved scams. Scams form the entire plot points of Matilda and the Twits. But every one of his books involves a scam of some kind, in which the young hero gets back at the opponent. David Walliams writes in the same tradition.
  • Ramona Quimby hides her report card in the freezer because her older sister Beezus’s is always perfect, showing her own school achievements up.
  • Jesse Aarons in The Bridge To Terabithia really wants to go with his music teacher to the museum, so when his mother is half asleep when he asks permission to go, he isn’t really concerned that she may not have even heard him.
  • Mildred Hubble from The Worst Witch series is constantly foiled in the second book in the series by a newcomer (Enid) who Mildred is supposed to be in charge of. This newcomer is full of mischief, which is interesting because she doesn’t really mean to cause trouble for Mildred, she is simply blundering her way through the strict rules of the boarding school for witches, breaking lots of rules.
  • The Pokey Little Puppy — Like Peter Rabbit, this is the character children fall in love with, even though he is doing exactly as his mother tells him not to. Perhaps we like these animals so much because they are justly punished.
  • Room On The Broom — through their own creativity, all of the passengers of the broom display great team work and fool the baddie to save the benevolent witch.
  • The Wee Wishy Woman of Nickety Nackety Noo-noo-noo by Joy Cowley saves her own bacon by fooling her captor into eating a stew made of glue. This is a classic fairytale ending — the clever trickster character gets away, similar to tales such as Hansel and Gretel, who fool the wicked witch by sticking out a chicken bone instead of a finger, and then by feigning ignorance about how to climb into an oven.
  • Holden Caulfield from Catcher In The Rye might be called the father of Ferris Bueller, taking off from school and doing his own thing.
  • Eleanor and Park each deceive themselves about how much they like each other, and then when they realise this, they must deceive certain adults in their lives. Is this the romance equivalent of a scam? I consider it as such.
  • The Fish in This Is Not My Hat has already stolen the hat at the beginning of the picture book, which shows initiative. In We Found A Hat, one tortoise fantasises about scamming his friend, but ultimately realises that this would ruin the friendship.
  • The Story Of The Little Mole Who Knew It Was None Of His Business is basically a revenge story in which a mole gets his own back by shitting on someone else.
  • Wolf Comes To Town is all about a wicked wolf who dresses up as respectable people in order to do very bad things. This particular form of deception fails to go unpunished, though, which may explain why this children’s picture book went out of print.
  • Artemis Fowl behaves badly, stealing fairy gold, but is undeniably attractive as a character because he goes after what he wants even if it’s illegal. He’s also very proud of himself.

But children’s authors aren’t usually encouraged to make use of ‘scams’, as such. I haven’t seen the word used. But I have heard advice to make use of ‘secrets’, the close cousin of the scam.


Children’s book editor Cheryl Klein advises that child protagonists should have secrets:

Let the reader know there’s a secret, and then don’t tell them what it is until it absolutely serves your purpose to do so. …It could be a secret the narrator knows and is keeping from the reader…Or it could be a secret the characters have to find out.

Klein points out that the genre of mystery novels require secrets and offers the example of Lemony Snicket, an example of a narrator who has a secret but refuses to tell the reader what it is.

Other child(like) characters with secrets:

  • Claude the dog goes off on his adventures when his owners are at work, so they never know what he’s been up to.
  • The Secret Seven were called ‘secret’ because they never told their parents (or other children outside the club) exactly what went down in their crime-busting world.
  • The storyteller character of Looking For Alaska by John Green keeps a secret from the reader and the structure of the book lets the reader know that we are counting down to a big reveal.
  • Billy in Where The Red Fern Grows has a secret — he sneaks off to buy a puppy after saving up a lot of pocket money, even though his family needs it

Are secrets more common in chapter books (and up) than in picture books? It seems so, since it’s harder to find examples of picture book characters who keep secrets. Since toddlers and young children are completely reliant upon their caregivers, the degree to which child protagonists keep secrets will depend on the age of the ideal reader, with the deepest darkest secrets being kept by YA protagonists.

Klein offers a caution about secrets when crafting the plot:

The answer to the secret has to have a significance equal to the effort the reader has invested in it.

Header image is a peanut butter advertisement by American commercial illustrator, Norman Rockwell.

How To Write Like Katherine Mansfield

How To Write Like Katherine Mansfield

Mansfield borrowed from those who came before her and we may do the same. In fact, it’s inevitable. It pays to know our own influences… if only so we don’t mimic them too closely.

Overall, Mansfield was a modernist writer. And of the modernist writers, she was at the highly aesthetic and visual end of the spectrum. She wasn’t big into verisimilitude.

Mansfield was also an Impressionist writer and wrote lyrical short stories (rather than ‘plotted’ ones).


  • Mansfield sought to subvert convention, sometimes even while appearing to use it. How does one subvert convention? See here. What exactly did Mansfield subvert? She had a distaste for bourgeois life. She hated the stuffier sides of Victorian and Edwardian life. She also targeted the (German) greedy preoccupation with food. In earlier stories she rejected a stuffy, stereotyped ideal of domesticity. Other things she despised: man-chasing, admiration for numbers of babies, the work-a-day aspects of marriage.
  • Mansfield’s stories are sometimes about the terrors of childbirth, known as Fear of Engulfment (“The Child-Who-Was-Tired“, “Prelude“, “At The Bay“).
  • There’s a confessional tone to Mansfield’s stories. We all have a public, private and secret self. The stories feel confessional because Mansfield spends a lot of time on the secret self — the self which is barely understood by the characters themselves let alone by anyone near to them. When writers allow readers insight into a character’s secret self we tend to understand, judge, forgive and then sympathise with the confessor. This is indeed one way to create likeable characters.
  • The family circle is generally presented unfavourably. Some of her fictional families got the gross, satirical treatment. Others are presented directly and harshly (“The Child-Who-Was-Tired“). The family in “A Picnic” gets less harsh treatment. The Burnell family are presented harshly but are not treated satirically at all.
  • Related to her Fear of Engulfment, Mansfield liked to explore the theme of retaining one’s individuality. Characters seem terrified of losing themselves, of being subsumed by the roles expected of them. They wish for individuality. Stories show that there are many pitfalls in love. Take the emotional variability in “The Swing of the Pendulum“, “Psychology“, “Taking The Veil” and “The Singing Lesson“.
  • Mansfield had no time for sycophancy or chauvinism. (She was woke.)
  • She wrote of childhood joys, of adolescent pleasures and pains, of adult aspirations and frustrations, and of the memories and final knowledge of the aged.
  • As characters she chose children exploring the world alone, children reacting to adults, lonely or isolated women in a hostile world, overbearing businessmen, fathers.
  • Mansfield afforded legitimacy to the emotional lives of children, with the idea that children feel as keenly as adults. She was ahead of her time in this. Early psychologists grouped infants with ‘primitive peoples’. Civilised intellects were considered of a higher order, and privileged in literature as well.
  • Many of Mansfield’s characters are in the early years of life, in some kind of transition. The transition might be from the infant’s purely affective sensory world to the adult’s world, where emotion and thought are entwined. The child is often learning how to contend with or express emotion. Children have a physical reaction before realising what happened. (“The Little Girl“, “How Pearl Button Was Kidnapped“)
  • To convey her characters’ constricted view of the world, Mansfield used isolation, delusion, cognitive restrictions, fantasies, hallucinations, dreams and fears as well as the difficulties of apprehensive youth.
  • It is often difficult to pinpoint an exact theme in her work, though a story like “The Doll’s House” is said to be accessible because of its clear theme and message.
  • One of her recurring themes is Proustian — to do with the shift and flux of time. No human relationship remains unchanged. At the moment of its consummation the relationship is being altered, lost until it is reanimated from the past.
  • Mansfield is also known for depicting the world of the child. After 1915 there is no bitterness or criticism in her work — young people are instead presented sympathetically, perhaps with humour (“Her First Ball“, “The Voyage“, “At The Bay“, “The Garden Party“, “The Doll’s House“, “The Young Girl“, “Taking The Veil“).
  • One of Mansfield’s major themes is the theme of illusion, of a faulty interpretation of an experience. Illusion is central to Literary Impressionist fiction. It’s hard to talk about in Mansfield’s work because it is pervasive. Every character exists somewhere on the Continuum of Imaginative Powers, whether they’re indulging in fantasy or are accidentally deluded.
  • Mansfield quite often changed the titles of her stories. It pays not to read too much into the significance of a title — just because “Prelude” was originally named “The Aloe” doesn’t necessarily mean the aloe is the central symbol. “The Man Without A Temperament” was earlier named “The Exile” and “The Doll’s House” was earlier named “The Washerwoman’s Children”. A setting frequently leads to the final choice of a title, or Mansfield uses the name of the main character. But also, an ironic twist in a main character’s perception of reality may also serve as a title.


Mansfield is known as the one of the first to bring modernist short stories to the West. She took her cues from Chekhov (who was Russian). She read early English translations of his work. Biographers don’t know if she first encountered Chekhov in Wellington. She may have, because she loved to spend many hours at the Wellington library. Or she may have read him later in England. In any case, he was clearly influential.

(If you want to narrate like Katherine Mansfield, you’re also narrating like Chekhov, and many other stylists who came after.)

  • Mansfield was a pioneer in interior monologue.
  • Mansfield generally makes use of shifting viewpoints, never settling on one character in particular. Because the ‘camera’ never settles, we expect her to shift viewpoints. That means you can’t settle in one head for too long. “Prelude” and “The Doll’s House” are examples of this. Other stories remain with a single character, in close third person narration. Examples are “The Tiredness of Rosabel” (until the final sentence, considered by some to be a writing mistake), “Miss Brill” and “The Wind Blows“.
  • To finish off a story, Mansfield sometimes switches point of view to that of another character who hasn’t had much airtime until now. (The Escape, “The Doll’s House”)
  • A technique called ‘narrative irony’ is present in Mansfield’s work right from “In a Cafe”, written at the age of 19. See also “In A German Pension“. Characters in her stories often continue to believe certain things even though experience tells them they shouldn’t. For example, a character describes something as ‘it seems’. Or the narrator might present wrong interpretations without any judgement.
  • Mansfield creates different perspectives on a given temporal event by offering perspectives from different viewpoints. This technique has been called narrative parallax.
  • Mansfield often follows this formula of ironic narrational parallax. This is what makes Mansfield Impressionist. This is what makes Mansfield’s work ironic. Her view of reality is ephemeral evanescent, constantly shifting its meaning and defies precise definition.
  • Parallax is a part of a wider movement known as Literary Impressionism, in which a (homodiegetic) narrator tells a story which is fragmentary, seemingly objective, dramatic and indirectly suggestive, as well as parallactic. Characters are conditioned by their environment and prone to distortion and misinterpretation. Unreliable, in other words. But not because they’re being deliberately deceitful — because they don’t quite understand themselves or their relationship to their world. This is how the character genuinely perceives reality. The central issues of Literary Impressionism are ‘Who am I?’ and ‘What is happening now?’ It is up to the reader to piece together fragments and come to our own conclusion about who this person is and what’s happening in the story. The character can’t see the full picture because they are stuck within the setting.
  • Characters are usually unable to comprehend much beyond their own personal world, however beautiful the natural surroundings and its ‘Stimmung’ (mood) and however strong the impulse to resist a passive outlook upon life.
  • A character’s view of life is necessarily subjective, solipsistic, tentative and qualified by preoccupation. Mansfield’s reality is arbitrary, fragmentary, momentary, ambivalent and complex.
  • Characters are reflected in each other’s thoughts. They’d hardly recognise themselves as they are presented, coloured and changed by different points of view. In “Prelude“, Stanley is seen by his wife by turns as a turkey or a Newfoundland dog.
  • The constantly shifting perspective gives the reader a series of shocks, as one perspective shifts to another. (Look for windows and mirrors in stories with shifting perspectives — “Prelude” as well as To The Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf.
  • The narrator in Mansfield’s stories is often perceptive but has no prior knowledge of characters or of the situation or the meaning of events. The in medias res beginning of many of her stories allows for no extra information. The narrator attempts to capture impressions in statu nascendi (in a state of being born). This narrator depicts the outer world not as it is, but as it appears, via the senses rather than the intellect. If that’s all we’re using, what have we got? Commentary on: appearance, size, age, voice. This will require a healthy number of adjectives and adverbs.



  • Mansfield created fictional impressions of real life around her. She gave her themes a fictional expression that attempted to define reality as viewed by one or more central characters.
  • Though Mansfield expressed disdain for her home country of New Zealand, as she approached death, her thoughts returned to her homeland and her last, most accomplished stories are all set in and around Wellington.
  • Some of her settings are ambiguous, such as “A Dill Pickle”, which is almost certainly London, but set in a cosmopolitan cafe which could be many places.
  • Mansfield lived in France and is now buried there. A number of her stories are set in France.
  • Others are set in Germany. Her collection In A German Pension is set in Germany, though Mansfield later said she didn’t like those stories.
  • Mansfield wrote contemporary tales, which means they’re all set in the late 1800s, early 1900s.
  • World War One (and events leading up to it) makes an appearance in some of her stories, if only to underscore how unimportant world events are to her characters, who must go on with their own small lives regardless. (“A Dill Pickle”, “The Fly”.)
  • Mansfield knew how a well-to-do, moneyed household worked. Her New Zealand natal family went by that exact description, and because English immigrants were still very English in their custom, she knew how that class of English people lived, too. Bertha of “Bliss” is presumably English born, but she’s no more English in character than the young fictional women who grew up in New Zealand.
  • Critics talk about ‘the snail underneath the leaf’ in Mansfield’s worlds, referring to the corruption of the world or ‘The Ugliness of Leaf’, which exists just below the surface. The ‘snail under the leaf’ theme also has a more general aspect in its emphasis on the evil of the universe, the basic cruelty of life, as a part of the general make-up of humanity. In Mansfield’s later stories the handling of theme grows darker and more despairing. ‘The snail underneath the leaf’ is also about people’s delusion — we may think everything is hunky dory, but only because we’re not looking under the rotten surface layer.
  • Mansfield liked to juxtapose life with death. From early 1920 onwards the death theme is either directly or indirectly present in many of her stories.
  • Related to this, time is brief. After 1917 Mansfield’s stories show nostalgia for New Zealand. Enough time had elapsed to allow her to look back on her childhood with fond memories, though while actually living there she felt stifled. She seems sorrowful to be separated from it and also feels joy and remembers its beauty.
  • What does it all mean? This is another question Mansfield asks over and over again, starting with a more satirical view that there is no point. Later she blends this theme with the beauty of nature. (There may be no point apart from living in the moment and enjoying life’s beauty.) When this is done she’s often describing trees e.g. “Bliss“, “The Escape“, “Weak Heart“, “Prelude“, “At The Bay“.
  • Mansfield’s symbol web often involves whirling, clusters, chains and patterns and these groups evoke a variety of effects.
  • Reliable data are difficult to find in Mansfield’s short stories and reliable interpretations of data are even more rare. Her reality is elusive, shifting and impenetrable.
  • The class system stands in the way of friendship and romance (“The Doll’s House“, “The Garden Party“.)
  • What is Mansfield’s relationship to nature? Nature is seen as a beautiful and serene phenomenon amid the calamities of human strife. It juxtaposes the corruption of human action. Nature is often used to evoke a special atmosphere in order to create an Impressionistic Stimmung (mood).
  • Katherine Mansfield is often called a modernist writer. The modernist movement happened from about 1900 until mid 20th century. One feature of modernist stories: the slightly unusual treatment of time. Critics have talked about ‘the temporal unconscious’. This refers to how time manifests itself subliminally in literary works. In the antipodes (including New Zealand), it worked slightly differently. The modernist works that came from New Zealand and Australia and surrounds have been called ‘micromodernism’ (by Tim Armstrong). It’s to do with the sense of distance we have, growing up so far away from the imaginative ‘home land’, which back then, was England.


Tiny, quotidian moments make for sufficient plot:

  • Being late for a train then losing your parasol off the cart (The Escape)
  • Going home after work to fantasise about a brief encounter you had with another young woman’s beau (The Tiredness of Rosabel)
  • Sitting on a park bench at the gardens, voyeuristically listening in to other people’s conversations (“Miss Brill”)
  • Riding the Picton Ferry with your grandmother, in charge of looking after her umbrella (“The Voyage”)
  • Preparing for a party (“Bliss”, “The Garden Party”, “Sun and Moon”)
  • Killing an irritating fly in your office after a former employee drops in with some news (“The Fly”)
  • Showing two classmates your new doll’s house even though those girls aren’t allowed in the yard (The Doll’s House)

However ambiguous Mansfield’s stories seem after a first reading, they’ll make sense to the careful reader after a second read-through. Symbolism is King. In common with writers like Joseph Conrad and Annie Proulx, Mansfield’s stories are about ‘delayed decoding‘. That’s a fancy way of saying the reader doesn’t know what’s happening until later, and often not until after a second read.


Get the mood first, and focus on the psychology of the characters. Some of your stories will require a cast of characters who are all equal as ‘main’ characters, because the themes are about the problems in a community:

  • Families, especially those with lots of money, are nicely dysfunctional for narrative purposes (Prelude)
  • Isolated women such as Beryl of the “Prelude” trilogy, “Miss Brill” and Rosabel from “The Tiredness of Rosabel“. These women tend to be fantasists, escaping regularly into their own fantasy worlds to compensate for lack of affection in real life. Many of the female characters don’t speak, or do not respond to speech. It’s as though they’re silenced by the power of the voices around them. But we shouldn’t read these women as conventionally ‘weak’. When these characters avoid words as the ‘natural’ medium of communication they not only circumvent the limits of conventional ‘meaning’ but also implicitly question the conventional association between male speech and authority (exemplified by the verbose Stanley from “At The Bay“.)
  • Overbearing businessmen fathers (“The Fly”,  the Comical Stanley Burnell from the “Prelude” trilogy)
  • Adolescents or women young beyond their years (“The Wind Blows”, The Tiredness of Rosabel)
  • In stories which include children, there’s a division between the adults and the children, with emphasis on how the adults’ behaviour is affecting the children as easily influenced little people, with reader empathy lying firmly with the children. We also realise these children will turn out exactly like their parents.
  • Mansfield tended to write absent, disinterested mothers. Maternal love is depicted negatively, especially when compared to the love children show for their grandmothers. Linda Burnell from the Prelude trilogy is uninterested in her children. She seems more interested in taking material goods to the new house in “Prelude” than in taking all of her children and helping them settle in. “We shall simply have to leave them. That is all. We shall simply have to cast them off…”
  • And where there are young children there is often an elderly character who Mansfield aligns them with. (“The Voyage”, “Sun and Moon”.) This has the effect of making the reader view a lifetime as a package all at once, and a life in terms of snapshots in a photo album, rather than viewing the very old and the very young as completely different creatures.
  • Older women tend to live with their younger, extended families and although they play an important role in the household, they are without much power. (“New Dresses,” the “Prelude” trilogy)
  • Young women have been taught that the most important thing about them is the way they look. They’ll probably love the way they look, aesthetically, when trying on a new hat in the mirror, but judge others harshly for their imperfections, especially imperfections of skin. This will lead some readers to conclude narcissism, but we are reminded that narcissism is borne of deep insecurity.
  • A common shortcoming of many Mansfield characters is that they absolutely love party preparation and even the parties themselves, but that after party clean up period (even though there are usually maids to do it) tends to remind them of death and decay. They can’t bear the flip side of carefully managed perfection. (“The Garden Party“, “Sun and Moon“)
  • Many of Mansfield’s characters have trouble with the falseness, ostentation and the sterility of modern life — especially characters from the upper classes.
  • Though Mansfield isn’t well known as a ground-breaking feminist writer, women in her stories are often at a disadvantage due to gender roles of the time. (New Dresses, “Her First Ball”, “The Daughters of the Late Colonel”.) “A Dill Pickle” is an obvious display of white male privilege, and the tough decision a white woman must make — does she marry an ass and gain some social status, or does she continue life as a middle-aged single woman?
  • Mansfield created characters with shortcomings designed to explore ‘the irreconcilable cleavage between the rich potentialities of live and the inescapable brutalities of human experience which must evoke despair.’ – Berkman
  • In many of Mansfield’s stories she’ll compare a character to a bird at some point. She uses quite a wide range of birds, though. The Kelvey girls are chickens in The Doll’s House, to underscore the motherly nature of the older Kelvey girl. “The Birdcage” is the ultimate example of a character as bird.
  • If you really want to immerse yourself in how Katherine Mansfield viewed people, you probably want to read Principles of Psychology by William James (brother of Henry James). James was what psychologists call a ‘vitalist’ (alongside Henri Bergson). James believed that behaviour influences emotion, whereas previously it was thought that a person’s emotion influences their behaviour. We now know that it’s more of cycle than a cause and effect kind of thing. James also came up with the phrase ‘stream of consciousness’, which describes modernist authors (a phrase which had entered literary criticism by 1918). Vitalism affected how modernist writers viewed ‘character’. Beforehand, the self had been understood in terms of a single transcendent ego, but modernists put it to their readers that ‘self’ was not only multiple, but also mutable. The self is not one single, never-changing thing. We change from moment to moment, as situations change. (Bergson added to this theory by making a distinction between superficial personality and deeper consciousness, which is exactly how storytelling gurus tell writers to create characters today.) This is partly what made Mansfield feel so modern. She challenged the ideology of the one true self (which we still see in much children’s literature today, as in ‘Be yourself’ stories). What does it mean to be yourself?
  • Vitalism also probably encouraged Mansfield to question the nature of time. She does all sorts of interesting things with time in her stories. She achieves The Overview Effect in “Prelude” and links children to the elderly. She picks symbols (e.g. the aloe in “Prelude“) for their interesting relationships with time. According to Henri Bergson, these separate selves don’t begin and end (I guess the would make it dissociative identity disorder), but each personality extends into another. It’s impossible to respond in exactly the same way to a single thing twice in succession. That’s because you’ve already had one reaction, and that will inevitably influence all subsequent reactions. It’s impossible to remain the same person, even from moment to moment. This is why so often Mansfield’s characters seem to be high on something one moment — the next downcast. e.g. Beryl in “At The Bay“, first viewing herself as a ‘lovely, fascinating girl’, then ‘All that excitement and so on has a way of suddenly leaving you’. (She has become aware of a nearby ‘sorrowful bush’.)
  • Mansfield’s diaries and letters show that when she felt down she experienced this as a kind of tiredness, though she knew the difference between lack of sleep and low mood. Similarly, when Mansfield’s characters feel tired, it’s often because they feel low affect. e.g. in “Something Childish But Very Natural” thinks he’ll never again see the girl on the train and ‘felt very tired—he only wanted to sit down and shut his eyes—she was not coming—a forlorn relief breathed in the words.’
  • Mansfield writes adolescents whose feelings are subject to confusion and whose mental processes are at their most restless. She mixes childlike savagery and adolescent purity with idealism. They can be irresponsible and passive. (Yvonne of “A Little Episode“, Henry and Edna of “Something Childish But Very Natural“.)
  • Nearly every main character suffers from the reality-illusion-disparity problem due to limited experience. This affects both matters of fact and matters of judgement.
  • Illusion is especially evident in the stories about children, who are often playing out their own interpretation of adult behaviour. The children reveal the social pretensions of their parents through their imitative fantasy but also portray the common illusions of adult life.
  • Many characters are described from the outside only. Unless they are moulded into a narrative focus, the characters are barely sketched in. Many characters make only brief appearances. We barely know their names.
  • ‘Positive’ characters are generally those who grow and develop new ideas. This is why there are many young people and children in Mansfield’s work, or interest to her because they still have the potential for change.


Characters must all have a conscious desire which connects to a deeper one. The conscious desires tend to be quite shallow, such as getting from point A to point B, or finding a hat suitable for a party, but the deeper desires include:


Characters don’t necessarily even know who their opponents are. Opposition a Mansfield story is very low grade (compared to a war big struggle), but has devastating consequences for the main character.

  • Mother and daughter form opponents in New Dresses to the point where the adults are causing their daughter serious psychological damage. And all because the mother wants her daughter to look clean and tidy and presentable.
  • Rich and poor make for natural opponents. Both rich and poor have already learned their place, even when the characters are children, as in The Doll’s House. No one’s trying to climb outside their designated social rank. They’re trying to live within it, as best they can. The Tiredness of Rosabel is another example.
  • In stories about couples, lovers make for natural opponents, because they are in and out of love with each other at different times. (Bliss, Prelude) In the Prelude trilogy, Linda both loves and hates her husband at the same time.
  • Sometimes the object of one’s affection doesn’t even know it. (“The Wind Blows”, “Bliss”.)
  • An emotionally mature character is a natural opponent for an emotionally immature character. (For Mansfield, maturity has nothing to do with age in years.) (New Dresses, “The Fly”.)
  • Mansfield liked the technique of counterposing one character with another. In the same way, excited and searching Bertha is counterposed to the calm and contained Pearl Fulton in “Bliss“. Sabina is counterposed next to the pregnant woman in “At Lehmann’s“. In the “Prelude” trilogy Kezia is set next to Linda, Beryl and Mrs Fairfield. This method of juxtaposing characters’ attitudes and moods give structural unity to stories.


  • The big struggles in Mansfield short stories are very subtle and often entirely inside a character’s head. The kitchen girl in Prelude regularly has arguments with her employers which take place only inside her head. Her witty (unsaid) comebacks make her feel much better.
  • Mansfield would often make use of the language of big struggle as proxy for an actual fight. “The Wind Blows” is an excellent example of that, in which the language of a fight is used to describe the adolescent brother and sister’s evening walk down to the seaside, where they will see the boat.


The experience of an epiphany is a key aspect of modernist writing: Virginia Woolf and James Joyce also tried to articulate flashes of realisation, revelation, insight and understanding. Woolf described these as ‘moments of being’.

  • Epiphanies are experienced in many of Mansfield’s stories, although they do not necessarily lead to complete comprehension. Rather there is awareness, intimation and possibly just a glimpse of something beyond a character’s everyday perceptions. Miss Brill thinks she’s realised something amazing as she sits on her park bench — that everyone is an important character in some kind of play. But her real realisation, though she doesn’t fully understand the reason behind her sudden downcast mood, is that she is old.
  • Quite often Mansfield refuses to express a character’s epiphany in words. The epiphany might actually take place in the ‘break’ between scenes (often divided by three asterisks).
  • Mansfield makes much use of symbolism and imagery in helping the reader to understand more about the character than the character knows about themselves. The fox fur in “Miss Brill” is a great example of that.
  • Mansfield’s stories are all about how no one has a full grip on ‘reality’. Everyone’s interpretation of reality is different.
  • Her stories tend to follow a regular pattern with the ‘positive’ theme dominant until the climax (the Battle). Then it comes into decisive conflict and is superseded by the negative theme. In other words, the story often takes a turn for the depressing at this point.
  • Although reality is elusive, shifting and impenetrable, it is at this point in the story when a character often experiences a moment of awareness. That said, there’s very little accurate ‘interpretation of reality’ in Mansfield’s stories, which on either side of the brief Anagnorisis are all about misinterpretation, distortion, misplaced emphasis and illusion.
  • Apperception is a dated word in psychology which indicates the mental process by which a person makes sense of an idea by assimilating it to the body of ideas he or she already possesses. Mansfield’s characters are often like this.
  • Nature images often help convey an epiphany.


  • In the end, the individual is alone and insignificant.
  • Some of Mansfield’s characters seem to have a revelation then we’re told they’ve forgotten all about it. This is partly why Mansfield’s work is referred to as ‘Freudian’, drawing upon Freud’s theories of suppression and repression. (Her First Ball, The Doll’s House)
  • This repression might be provoked by something trivial which causes some glimmer of hope. (“Daughters of the Late Colonel”)
  • Mansfield’s images often encapsulate the full impact of a short story, especially in a concluding or ironic paragraph.
  • A quiet day’s end is rarely as peaceful as illusion suggests.


  • There’s a lot of imagery! “At the Bay” is 40 pages long and contains 101 comparisons and 88 metaphors. (It wasn’t me who counted.)
  • Sometimes images are a standalone metaphor. Other times she creates a complex imagistic pattern, combining several forms of imagery.
  • Mansfield varies the intensity of her images. She is able to weaken or enlarge a pictorial image. The narrator wants to leave a gap between a subjective impression and an objective presentation of the experience to be described and compared. This can leave the reader with a deliberately fostered feeling of vagueness, indirection or insufficiency. (e.g. something which is like longing, and yet it is not longing. Or regret — it is more like regret — “The Canary“.)
  • Some images have purely narrative function but other imagistic patterns indirectly emphasise a character-trait which the reader has seen via their dialogue and action.
  • Mansfield makes heavy use of pathetic fallacy — whatever a character feels, everything around them will seem to feel like that, too. An aloe tree or a pear tree (“Bliss”) might make a character feel buoyantly happy, but for another character (“The Escape”), a beech tree will make him feel suffocated. (Nothing inherently to do with the tree.) Miss Brill feels sad and lonely, so her fur fox (or stoat, or whatever it is) also looks sad to her.
  • Hats in Mansfield’s stories are repeatedly associated with systems of authority. (This is not stated but unarticulated) e.g. “The Tiredness of Rosabel“. In “Something Childish But Very Natural“, Henry’s story begins with him becoming separated from his hat in a different train carriage. This seems to relieve him of inhibitions. In “The Garden Party” the images of hats are incorporated in the action of the story not only because people wore hats in those days and put a lot of thought into them, but also because they are related to moral values.
  • Contrasting patterns of images often generate a thematic layer of meaning.
  • The birds, trees, insects and objects are often introduced by means of a precise comparison e.g. the pear tree in “Bliss“: ‘At the far end, against the wall, there was a tall slender pear tree in fullest, richest bloom; it stood perfect, as though becalmed against the jade-green sky’.
  • Grown-up people are often compared with children and children with grown-ups. This reveals contrasting joyful or painful emotions.
  • Sad tones often dominate the scene, sometimes conveying a feeling of claustrophobia, when characters feel as if they are in prison or hospital, or like actors performing on a stage. People appear like actors, wearing masks.
  • Mansfield sometimes personifies material objects. These objects share a character’s emotions in a fused emotional atmosphere.
  • When Mansfield compares people to animals, beasts, insects, water-creatures or birds, unpleasant emotions are revealed. Insects are helpless, snakes are cunning, spiders are hunting for prey. Rabbits are escaping. They all represent a cruel or suffering aspect of humankind.
  • Mansfield especially likes bird images. Bird comparisons comprise almost half of all the animal imagery. In some stories, birds represent freedom or happiness (because they fly and seem to sing joyfully). But this is not how Mansfield makes use of birds.
  • Acoustic images are important, too.  Often sounds are distant or muted.
  • Visual and acoustic imagery fuses in an almost synaesthesic way, creating a dreamlike atmosphere.
  • Characters themselves are either highly aware of these images or not so much — this places them within a scene and tells us how they relate to their setting.
  • Colour is emphasised, and relates to character mood. Colour is used for more than simply describing something. Colour images fall into two basic categories: [1] Images related to the visual experience of the character who sees it and [2] images which express in colour the atmospheric mood or their mental state. Some commentators have said that Mansfield’s technique of describing colour maps directly onto pointillism, in which artists use short brush strokes to create a lot of dots, and avoid blending, instead requiring the viewer to stand back in order to make out a scene. (Stand too close and all you’ll see are the dots.)
  • Though this is a stretch, there is a painterly quality to Mansfield’s prose. She uses purple, green and gentle colours such as mild yellows, greys, blues and variations of light. This paints tones and creates atmosphere.
  • One of Mansfield’s ways of expressing emotion was to find a set of objects, a situation or a chain of events which conveyed the formula of the particular emotion.
  • Mansfield’s figurative language and images are often ironic, projecting a character’s wrong interpretation of events.
  • Here’s what she doesn’t do. In common with the Realists of the late 1800s, Mansfield avoided figurative language that would draw on spiritual and supernatural worlds for their meaning. She doesn’t refer to mythology either.
  • Mansfield often tries to arrest the reader’s attention through an unexpected, rare or even bizarre image, so that the impression will strike home. The image may create an illusion of objectivity, but the reader is nevertheless aware of the particular manner in which the illusion is created.


The value of language is one of the most pervasive motifs in Mansfield’s writing, and she clearly was interested in words and sentences.

  • Mansfield created meaningful silence in her stories. Silence is a form of communication in its own right. When her characters don’t speak or refuse to respond, this highlights other symbolic nuance — the reader is trusted to read the signs: irony, puns, negation, intertextual allusion, metaphor.
  • She made much use of spatial breaks (three asterisks) e.g. in “Die Einsame”, “In a Cafe”, “Old Cockatoo Curl”, “Something Childish But Very Natural“, “An Indiscreet Journey“, “Six Years After” and in some of the German Pension sketches. These divisions affect the pacing of the stories, speeding the narrative up or slowing it down as required. Feel free to use the three dot ellipsis when ‘ending’ a sentence.
  • Mansfield repeats words, partly to make the rhythm of the prose work more like poetry.
  • Language is succinct, both at a sentence level and at a scene level. The prose is akin to lyric poetry with much thought given to prosody and scansion.
  • She often opens stories grounding us in time, telling us the season or the day of the week or the time.
  • There are many qualifying terms of uncertainty: ‘as if’, ‘in a kind of’, ‘rather like’ etc. This often indicates the illusion of proximity or a variable intensity. This is Mansfield stressing the deluding tricks of the eye. Visual phenomena are thereby presented as problematic. An example of this can be found in “At The Bay“, in which Mansfield describes an early foggy morning at sea. She distorts proximity by merging the hills, the bungalows, the paddocks, the dew drops, the birds, the sea — distorted when seen from a distance.
  • Little touches are placed side by side and concatenation prevails in Katherine Mansfield’s imagery. One of her methods is to heighten the pictorial atmosphere by accumulations of comparisons for the same object. The images are swollen and blown up by extra additions. ‘Every note was a sigh, a sob, a groan of awful mournfulness.’ ‘How extraordinary shell-like we are as we are — little creatures, peering out of the sentry-box, ogling through our glass case at the entry, wan little servants, who never can say for certain, even, if the master is out or in’