David Beagley, La Trobe University, available on iTunes U
What is ‘traditional’?
- A ‘tradition’ must follow a pattern that’s been set down and repeated over time. It can be traced through history.
- Traditional ‘templates’ keep being used across generations and these templates are partly what make stories traditional.
- The pattern must be ‘fixed’ in some way, which do not change over time. But there also must be elements which have changed. So tradition is a mixture of very old patterns and new variations. Without variations it’s not a tradition but a ‘repetition’.
- Much of traditional literature derives from the oral tradition.
- The printing press worked to fix a single version of a story, when in fact they tend to evolve. (In so many cases we think of the Disney version.) Modern marketing and publishing leads the audience to think of one particular version of a story.
- Happy Birthday To You
- He’s A Jolly Good Fellow
- In Australia a lot of them derive from military songs. For example Melbourne’s Grand Old Flag is taken from an American song. Collingwood Forever was a marching song from the Boer War.
- So many of these are a cultural marker, used to help define a particular group because they derive from a shared history. The Brothers Grimm collected a huge number of stories particularly from the Germanic countries (there was no country called ‘Germany’ back then. There were lots of separate Germanic states and each state was a separate country.) The Grimm brothers were trying to bring these groups together with a shared culture. Eventually they came together as Germany. [Was it the folktales, then? Ha ha]
- A folktale is the ‘generic’ tale that is used for all the tales/puns/jokes etc that can be lumped together, garnered from the oral tradition.
- Folklore includes superstitions/remedies/old wives’ tales.
- There are various categories of these.
- Lots of beast stories.
- Fools and Innocents: Jack and the Beanstalk, [Simple Simon], Brer Rabbit, Anansi (a spider in African lore)
- Pourquoi Stories: how and why things happen. [pourquoi means ‘why’ in French]
- Domestic Stories: The Elves and the Shoemaker
- Human Traits: King Midas, Icarus, [The Emperor’s New Clothes]
- Moral Warnings
- Fairytales are a subset of folktales.
- Fairytales include fantasy. Think of ‘faery’ as a place or a state, which was its original use. A fairytale is set in this parallel fantasy world.
Myths and Legends
- A myth is a story that explains the world. Many derive from early religions because they were the best explanation people could come up with at the time, with the evidence they had. These are not for entertainment, originally made up to explain how the world came about.
- A legend is usually about a single person (sometimes groups), but focuses on the lives of individual people. These people might not be real. Robin Hood, Joan of Arc, Ulysses are all characters who make certain groups proud to be a part of that group. In Australia we have The Man From Snowy River and similar, which perpetuates a particular image of Australia. Legends can be misused. (See: The Nazis.) [See again, Deconstructing The Hero by Marjery Hourihan.]
- Myths and legends all derive from reality and all function to explain the world to a particular culture.
- Related: See my post What Is Mythic Structure?
- These are often a child’s first experience of literature. [But is that still the case? Do modern children still have old nursery rhymes read to them?]
- There are now nursery rhymes which have been ‘authored’. (We know who wrote Twinkle Twinkle Little Star.)
- Nursery rhymes are a huge mess of the created, adapted, the melodied. These exist for the purpose of play.